In Greek, the word “diabetes” means “expiration”, and the expression “diabetes”, respectively, can literally be translated as “losing sugar.” Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high blood sugar, the appearance of sugar in the urine, a violation of all types of metabolism as a result of a lack of an important pancreatic hormone, insulin, in the body.
Diabetes is prevalent throughout the world. And every year the number of people suffering from this ailment is growing steadily, while, mainly among people of working age.
There are two types of diabetes mellitus:
Type I – insulin-dependent, when 90% of pancreatic cells died as a result of viral damage and do not produce insulin. Young people are ill. In children, in almost 100% of cases, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Type II – non-insulin-dependent (obese diabetes), when insulin in the body is and is even produced in increased quantities, but it does not have the proper effect due to impaired sensitivity of cells in the body’s tissues to it. The disease is hereditary, usually obese people who are sick after 40 years.
The following predisposing factors can contribute to the development of this disease: heredity, overweight, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, diseases of other endocrine glands, viral infections (rubella, chickenpox, epidemic hepatitis, flu), which act as a trigger; stressful situations, age (the older the person, the greater the danger).
Symptoms of Diabetes
The main manifestations of diabetes are intense thirst, frequent urination. With type I, patients lose weight up to 10-15 kg per month, sharp weakness develops, decreased performance, the smell of acetone or apples from the mouth appears. If untreated, a diabetic coma develops (loss of consciousness), which leads to death. With type II, the disease and characteristic symptoms develop slowly, can be manifested by skin itching, pustular skin lesions, poorly healing wounds, dry mouth, thirst, but a diabetic coma is rare.
Diabetes mellitus is especially dangerous due to its complications
that occur both in type I and type II diseases. High blood sugar causes the destruction of microvessels – capillaries in various organs, disrupting their blood supply and function. As a result, cataract develops (an eye disease characterized by partial or complete clouding of the lens with visual impairment up to its complete loss), hemorrhage in the retina and blindness are possible, kidneys are affected, which leads to chronic renal failure and uremia (poisoning of the body by toxins). If the vessels of the lower extremities are affected, trophic ulcers and gangrene of the fingers and feet arise – one of the forms of necrosis (necrosis, death), in which the dead tissue undergoes putrefactive decay. The function of peripheral nerves is impaired – neuropathy, which is manifested by pain in the legs, and then a loss of skin sensitivity. Impotence develops in men. Since the body’s resistance is sharply reduced, various infections join the disease – tuberculosis, inflammation of the genitourinary tract. Pronounced changes are observed in the liver, in which fat accumulates, which leads to fatty degeneration and cirrhosis of the liver.
Among the therapeutic factors
used in diabetes, great importance is attached to physical activity, which has a multilateral healing effect by increasing the functional activity of various organs and systems.
The main tool is health training in the form of cyclic aerobic exercises. The most effective are walking, running, skiing, swimming (in some cases swimming is not recommended for persons with an insulin-dependent type, the use of this physical activity should be carried out under the supervision of a specialist), training on simulators (bicycle ergometer, treadmill). In diabetes, the regularity of exercise using physical activity is a very important factor, because sudden and intense exercise can, on the contrary, lead to problems. A more than two-day break in training leads to a decrease in the increased sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin achieved by previous workouts.
Regular exercises for diabetes contribute to:
increasing insulin sensitivity,
reducing adipose tissue deposits and increasing muscle mass,
increasing the body’s resistance to
lowering the risk of hypertension,
improving physical development,
reducing the risk of limited joint mobility,
reducing emotional stress or depression,
improving quality of life and increasing self-esteem
During classes, it is necessary to have easily digestible carbohydrates in the form of glucose,
refined sugar, and fruits. To quench your thirst, it is advisable to use mineral (alkaline) water. During exercise, the use of alcohol is strictly prohibited, which pharmacologically reduces the sensitivity of the brain to glucose deficiency.
After exercise, cool water procedures are recommended (rubbing, showering, bathing), activating the oxidative processes in the body. Not recommended steam bath, hot shower or bath (especially in combination with physical exertion). It is necessary to avoid overheating, including sunbathing in the open sun.