In many countries over the past 15 years, the incidence of diabetes has increased by 3-5% per cent, which is largely due to the increase in the number of people with overweight and obesity. But this is not the only risk factor, along with unfavorable heredity for the disease. If there are some alarming symptoms, if there are diabetics in the family, you need to see a doctor and perform diagnostic tests to suspect diabetes – this is the determination of blood sugar (fasting, with exercise) and glycated Hemoglobin A1c.
Record to the doctor and tests: to whom and when?
Today, the number of patients with prediabetes, when insulin receptor sensitivity is suffering, and already clinically expressed diabetes is growing. Therefore, patients with unfavorable heredity (one or several diabetics in the family) need periodic Entry to the doctor and the study of blood sugar. In addition, it is important to examine patients with obesity or overweight, high blood pressure. M You can to the clinic and get tested to determine the level of fasting plasma glucose. If the results are abnormal, you need an appointment with a doctor and additional research:
Determination of blood sugar with a load;
- Hemoglobin A1c level (the average plasma glucose concentration in the last 2-3 months is determined).
- According to the results of all studies, a diagnosis is made, the type of diabetes and all associated pathologies are determined.
Features of type 2 diabetes
In recent years, the detection of type 2 diabetes, the most common form of the disease, has increased. Diabetes develops when the body does not produce enough insulin (in the first type) or does not use it properly, which causes a violation of blood sugar control. It is important to identify this condition as early as possible, as changes in metabolism and a significant increase in plasma glucose adversely affect health, provoke serious diseases of the heart and blood vessels, are the main cause of blindness, kidney failure, threaten the development of gangrene and amputation of the foot.
But type 2 diabetes is dangerous in that it may not be detected for a long time due to the limitations of specific symptoms. According to experts, millions of people around the world have chronically increased blood sugar, but they are unaware of their problem. And the longer a person has diabetes and the higher his blood sugar level rises as a result of the disease, the more likely that the patient will suffer from destructive and even fatal consequences.
Blood Sugar: Regular Checks
Doctors often call type 2 diabetes, similar to arterial hypertension, a “silent” killer. Therefore, any entry to the doctor and examination, especially if the patient’s body weight exceeds the norm, always requires, along with other diagnostic tests, to conduct a fasting blood glucose test. Often, a patient who has applied for another reason will ultimately determine a violation of glucose tolerance (the so-called prediabetes) or diabetes mellitus.
Proper treatment of the disease can significantly increase life expectancy and reduce the risk of dangerous complications. If a patient is well in control of blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol, he is much more likely to avoid dangerous complications.
Features of the disease
Unlike type 1 diabetes mellitus, which causes problems with the pancreatic islet apparatus and insulin synthesis, is progressively reduced, for the second type of disease, the formation of insulin receptors is typical. Often type 2 diabetes is asymptomatic as long as metabolism does not provoke significant complications. Not always with the development of this variant of the disease are typical symptoms – thirst, polyuria, loss of body weight. Determine the problem in the study of glucose in the blood plasma. If the indicators are too high on an empty stomach, additional testing is needed to determine the presence of already clinically pronounced diabetes or metabolic changes typical of prediabetes.
People with prediabetes have a higher blood sugar level than usual, but do not reach critical values typical of the disease. However, they may develop diabetes if they do not take steps to reduce the risk, such as increased physical activity, gradual weight loss and correction diets.
Overweight and obesity: the risk of diabetes
Experts recommend testing for diabetes and prediabetes to all adults whose body weight exceeds the standard values by 15-20% or more. A survey is especially important if, against the background of overweight, there is one or more additional risk factors for the development of diabetes.Thus, a body mass index from 25 to 30 is considered overweight, and a value of 31 or higher is considered obese. These patients need more targeted observation and examination.
It is imperative to investigate blood sugar if the patient is overweight, whose close relatives suffer from diabetes. In addition, risk factors are a sedentary lifestyle, previously diagnosed hypertension or high cholesterol level.
If the patient is a woman and had gestational diabetes or a baby weighing more than 4000 g was born, polycystic ovary syndrome is defined as additional risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes.
Plasma glucose testing at least once every three years is necessary for all patients, especially for people who are overweight or obese, at the age of 45 years. If there are several risk factors and the patient has an excess of body weight, it is necessary to check blood sugar even during adolescence and young age.
Today, for many people, the disease is determined during the examination for other reasons: in the treatment of protracted infections, when visiting a doctor with complaints of high blood pressure or in examining patients before surgery.