Nutrition as a cure for diabetes
The disease is characterized by a decrease in tissue sensitivity to insulin. Often, pathology is accompanied by an increase in body weight, especially abdominal obesity. With a mild severity of diabetes, the condition can be normalized without drug therapy – with the help of diet and physical activity. Nutritional therapy in this case plays a decisive role. In severe cases, the diet is an adjunct to medication. In type 2 diabetes, diet number 9 is used. It is designed specifically for the treatment of conditions that are manifested by impaired carbohydrate metabolism.
You need to observe it for a long time, often for life.
The diet is aimed at normalizing carbohydrate metabolism, the violation of which is the main mechanism for the development of the disease. Diet 9 also tackles diabetes risk factors. These include:
- Increased body weight, obesity;
- Eating fast carbohydrates, especially sweets;
- Eating a lot of animal fats.
With obesity, insulin sensitivity decreases due to the excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. A decrease in subcutaneous fatty tissue increases insulin sensitivity, so a low-calorie diet is used for treatment. A daily menu with a content of 1300-1500 kcal is selected.
With a normal body weight, calorie intake can be higher (up to 2000-3000 kcal) and depends on gender, weight and level of physical activity.
Also, diet 9 excludes the use of sweet, baked goods, contains a small amount of animal fats. It also improves illness by reducing fluctuations in glucose levels. It is recommended to draw up a menu in advance for a week, so that you can control the indicators of carbohydrate metabolism, select the dosage of medicines.
The principles of nutritional therapy
Nutrition for type 2 diabetes is based on the following principles:
- Reduced daily calorie content,
- Eliminated foods that lead to a sharp increase in glucose levels,
- Changed the ratio of macronutrients: reduced consumption of fats and carbohydrates,
- Fats are mainly represented by products of vegetable origin,
- Carbohydrates are mainly represented by cereals, whole grain bread,
- High fiber content,
- The basis of the diet is represented by fresh vegetables and fruits, protein products,
- Fast carbohydrates are virtually eliminated.
Thus, Diet 9 promotes weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity.
When drawing up a menu for a week, it is important to remember that the diet must also be balanced in terms of the content of vitamins and microelements.
Prohibited and permitted products
All foods on diet 9 are divided into 3 categories:
- Allowed for use,
- Are limited,
Products that belong to category 1 are recommended to be consumed daily. They have a beneficial effect on metabolism, their use is not associated with the risk of exacerbation of the disease. List of approved products:
- Lean meat: veal, beef, rabbit;
- Poultry: chicken breast, turkey;
- Lean fish;
- Egg white;
- Sour milk products of low fat content: kefir, fermented baked milk, cottage cheese;
- Porridge: buckwheat, oatmeal, pearl barley, wheat, brown rice;
- Wholemeal bread ;
- Fruits and berries: apple, orange, currant, grapefruit, lemon, plum, watermelon;
- Vegetables: zucchini, asparagus, cucumber, pumpkin, tomato, bell pepper, white cabbage and cauliflower, broccoli;
- Greens: sorrel, spinach, dill, parsley.
Permitted products include drinks: green and fruit tea, chicory, rosehip decoction, herbal infusions.
In addition, with diabetes, it is recommended to drink at least 1.5-2 liters of clean water per day. This allows you to normalize the water balance, prevents dehydration. Restricted food items include the following:
- Fatty fish and meat;
- Cottage cheese 5% fat and higher;
- Starchy vegetables: potatoes, beets.
- Porridge: semolina, rice.
The use of such products is not strictly prohibited, but it is still recommended to reduce their content in the diet. When drawing up a menu for a week, prohibited foods must be completely excluded. Their use leads to an exacerbation of the condition, the transition of diabetes mellitus to the stage of decompensation. Prohibited foods include:
- Pastries, cakes, milk and white chocolate, sweets;
- Pastries, bread made from premium flour;
- Sugar, including sweet tea and coffee
- Sweet fruits and berries: banana, grapes;
- Carbonated sweet drinks;
- Alcohol, including low alcohol drinks.
Menu for the week
The menu for diabetes mellitus is compiled taking into account the products allowed and prohibited by diet No. 9, the daily requirement for vitamins and minerals. It is better to prepare the menu for the week in advance, this allows you to purchase all the necessary products in advance and reduces the likelihood of errors in the diet.
Food should be taken often, but in small portions. It is recommended to organize meals with a 2-3 hour break.
- Breakfast: oatmeal cooked in water with the addition of dried fruits.
- Second breakfast: baked apple, herbal tea.
- Lunch: green borscht, boiled egg, a slice of whole grain bread.
- Snack: a glass of low-fat kefir.
- Dinner: steamed chicken cutlets, vegetable salad with vegetable oil.
- Breakfast: low-fat cottage cheese pancakes, fruit tea.
- Second breakfast: fruit salad (orange, kiwi, pear, plain yogurt), green tea.
- Lunch: soup with meatballs, vegetable salad.
- Snack: a glass of fermented baked milk or warm milk.
- Dinner: 2 egg omelet, tomatoes, pepper.
- Breakfast: steam omelet, tomatoes, a slice of whole grain bread.
- Second breakfast: rosehip broth.
- Lunch: buckwheat porridge, sauerkraut with sunflower oil.
- Snack: orange, fruit tea.
- Dinner: steamed fish and asparagus beans.
- Breakfast: low-fat cottage cheese, a handful of nuts, berries.
- Second breakfast: pear, green tea.
- Lunch: wheat porridge, fresh vegetable salad.
- Snack: a glass of fermented baked milk, bran.
- Dinner: vegetable stew, steamed chicken breast.
- Breakfast: pancakes with cottage cheese, chicory with milk.
- Second breakfast: baked apple, nuts.
- Lunch: stewed cabbage, boiled beef.
- Snack: kefir with bran.
- Dinner: steamed omelet with spinach.
- Breakfast: a sandwich made from whole grain bread and boiled veal, green tea.
- Second breakfast: grapefruit, nuts, dried fruit compote.
- Lunch: borscht, boiled beef.
- Snack: salad of fresh vegetables, seasoned with olive oil.
- Dinner: low-fat cottage cheese, apple.
- Breakfast: cottage cheese casserole with currants.
- Second breakfast: rosehip broth.
- Lunch: vegetable soup, a slice of black bread with boiled beef.
- Snack: apple, carrot, a handful of seeds.
- Dinner: boiled fish, fresh vegetables, herbs.