A correctly built menu for a week helps to normalize the patient’s blood glucose level and get all the nutrients and vitamins that the body needs. The development of diet number 9 suggests just such a result. People with diabetes develop glycemia. The menu formed on the principles of Pevzner allows you to keep it at a safe level, thus protecting yourself from complications, especially the most severe ones – coma.
Diet rules for diabetes
The Pevzner diet was created to help normalize carbohydrate metabolism and prevent fat metabolism disorders. Some of the products in this case are completely excluded, proteins are supplied in a normal volume, and easily digestible carbohydrates are cut back. Nutrition must be coordinated with the attending physician.
Per day, if the patient is not overweight, it is permissible to consume up to 2500 kcal . That’s up to 100 grams of protein, about 80 grams of fat, and 350 grams of carbohydrates. These components are evenly distributed throughout the day between bread products, meat, vegetables.
Diabetes is often combined with overweight or obesity. In this case, the calorie content of the diet is reduced. The upper limit is set at 1300-1700 kcal , and the norm of carbohydrates per day does not exceed the threshold of 120 grams. It is necessary to include fasting days. Rules to follow:
- Regularity of food;
- Single serving of small volume;
- Elimination of certain foods and alcohol;
- Complete rejection of sugar, sorbitol or xylitol is recommended instead;
- Food is cooked in the oven, boiled, stewed, or use a double boiler;
- Mandatory inclusion of vitamins and microelements – vegetables and fruits;
- Adequate protein and reduced carbohydrate content.
Initially, table 9 is introduced for a short period to determine how tolerant the body is to carbohydrates. This helps the doctor figure out the dosage for the medications. Your blood glucose level is checked every three days, before meals. If the indicators decrease to normal after 2-3 weeks, then the main diet begins to expand, including one bread unit per week.
XE is a bread unit representing 15 grams of carbohydrates. It is equal to 30 grams of bread, an apple, two prunes.
There are several subspecies of the diet for diabetes. Table No. 9 is designed as standard for diabetics without excess weight. If the sugar level has stopped increasing relative to normal values, then a gradual expansion of XE per week begins. When the diet is expanded by 12 XE, such a diet is kept for four months, after which another 4 XE is allowed to be added. The next stage, when it will be possible to increase the amount of carbohydrates, is in a year. This type of diet is recommended as a permanent menu for type II diabetics. If the patient is obese, then table 9A is formed. When a person develops insulin-dependent diabetes, the 9B diet is formed for him. In this case, the amount of carbohydrates is significantly higher, potatoes, bread, some types of cereals, vegetables are added. The total value of such a menu is about 3100 kcal . Even sugar is included – about 30 grams. Your meals will depend on the insulin you receive. Almost 70% of the carbohydrates must be supplied at the time of injections. After the injection, the first meal should be taken after 20 minutes, the next – after 3 hours, no more. When a patient has deviations in the metabolism of carbohydrates, the Baranov diet is used. You can consume up to 2150-2210 kcal per day . The diet is trial and requires monitoring of urine and blood counts. There is a special version for those who have bronchial asthma.
Indications for the introduction of a specific type of diet
There are certain indications for the introduction of a standard diet in the case of diabetes mellitus:
- Diabetes mellitus without dependence on insulin;
- Diabetes with a norm of no more than 25 units of insulin per day;
- Recently diagnosed;
- Lack of obesity;
- Joint diseases;
- Allergic diseases;
- The need to determine carbohydrate tolerance in order to choose the dosage of drugs.
Compliance with the nutritional principles developed by Pevzner helps to reduce the need for insulin in type 1 diabetics. With type 2 diabetes, the correct menu allows you to lower sugar levels and significantly improve the course of metabolic processes.
The doctor helps to choose the best option, it is not recommended to switch to diet 9 on your own.
What can be consumed
Forming a diet of 9, a weekly menu, you should rely on the list of foods allowed for diabetes mellitus:
- Bread and bran products, whole grains ;
- Cereals: millet, oatmeal, buckwheat;
- Diet pasta;
- Lean meat: rabbit, lamb, veal, pork;
- Chicken and Turkey;
- Low-fat sausages;
- Fish: cod, pike perch;
- Berries and fruits;
- Eggs (no more than once a day);
- Low-fat milk and dairy products;
- Diet confectionery;
- Coffee drink, juices, compotes, tea, herbal teas, rose hips, mineral water.
With diabetes, eat in small portions. The maximum gap between meals is no more than three hours. Salt per day can be consumed up to 6 grams. It is necessary to follow the schedule, adhering to a certain time.
What you absolutely can’t eat
List of products to be excluded:
- Sugar confectionery and muffins;
- Fat meat;
- Fatty dairy products;
- Meat broths with broth;
- Fatty and salted fish;
- Hard cheeses;
- Sweet curds;
- Pasta from soft cereals;
- Sweet fruits;
- Raisins, figs, grapes;
- Juices with sugar, especially grape;
- Sweet soda;
- Canned food;
- Pickled vegetables.
When diagnosed with diabetes, it is categorically impossible to get carried away with alcohol.
The table 9 menu works because the so-called fast carbohydrates are completely replaced by those that are absorbed noticeably slower. At the same time, food will not provoke a sharp rise in blood glucose, which means it will not cause unpleasant consequences. Sugar in the usual sense is completely excluded; instead, xylitol or sorbitol are used – sweeteners. Stevia, a natural sugar substitute, is also good. Saccharin is supposed to be used for desserts. The daily calorie content is selected individually by the attending physician. The diabetic’s diet does not allow the use of any fast food or convenience foods, since these foods contain trans fats . When choosing the fruit component of the diet, they are guided by the glycemic index, since some sweet ones (bananas) cause a jump in glucose. The method of cooking is also taken into account. Fried foods are not allowed for diabetics.
Menu for every day
The diet according to diet number 9 should rationally distribute the incoming carbohydrates, therefore it is especially important to consult with the attending specialist and calculate the amount of carbohydrates in the foods consumed.
Products based on which you can create the right diet for a diabetic:
- Butter (but not more than 20 grams) and vegetable oil;
- Meat fish;
- Cottage cheese;
- Dairy products;
- Sour cream;
- Groats – buckwheat, millet, oatmeal;
- Vegetables (with care – beets and carrots);
- Rye bread;
- Freshly squeezed vegetable juices;
- Apple juice, plum juice;
With diabetes mellitus, the menu for each day should include from five to six meals. Below are the options for meals that can be used to create a standard weekly diet.
Dishes you can cook for breakfast
Breakfast can be quite hearty, the dishes recommended for this meal by doctors:
- Buckwheat with a lump of butter, meat or liver pate, tea with xylitol (no sugar);
- Pearl barley, cabbage salad dressed with vegetable oil, egg, coffee;
- Squash caviar, egg, low-fat yogurt;
- Omelet with tomatoes;
- Millet porridge, cocoa;
- Bran, apple;
- Cottage cheese and yogurt (low-fat).
This meal involves a light snack, you should not eat heavily at this time:
- Two small to medium sized apples;
- Sugar-free yogurt;
- A couple of oranges;
- Soft-boiled egg;
- Fresh berries.
At lunch you can eat denser:
- Soup without broth, lean lamb with stewed vegetables, baked in the oven;
- Pickle, potatoes (mashed potatoes), liver with gravy or sauce, unsweetened juice;
- Green borscht with sour cream, stewed beans with mushrooms;
- Borscht or cabbage soup, stuffed with peppers;
- Pea soup, meat zrazy with the addition of cheese, bread;
- Vegetable stew with pork;
- Baked chicken breast with vegetables.
To wait for dinner without losses for the body, it is recommended to provide for a short afternoon snack:
- Fruits: fresh apple, grapefruit;
- Bran cookies, buckwheat flour;
- Sugar-free jelly (xylitol);
- Doctor’s bread;
- Juice with pulp content;
- Bran broth;
- Cottage cheese casserole with pumpkin.
Dinner can also be quite hearty:
- Lean fish (boiled) with stewed cabbage, unsweetened tea (xylitol can be added);
- Fish stewed in sour cream sauce; cabbage schnitzel, tea with added milk;
- Buckwheat with boiled chicken, cabbage salad;
- Baked chicken, vegetable salad;
- Minced chicken casserole, cauliflower;
- Braised beef with cabbage;
- Baked fish and squash pancakes, tomato juice.
Very little is recommended. Basically, it should be milk and dairy products, for example:
- Low-fat yogurt
- Sour milk.
Sometimes you can add fruit juice, biscuits, or bread. The variety of dishes is quite impressive, because table 9 for diabetes mellitus is a pleasant diet that allows you to maintain the state of the body.
Diabetics should adhere to certain points when preparing food. For soups, you cannot use ready-made seasoning mixtures, bouillon cubes. Cooking on rich broths from fatty meat and bones, fish or mushrooms is excluded . For the first courses, use vegetable broths or water. The meat is always cooked separately. Milk porridges are boiled in milk diluted with water. Oil is added only to the finished dish. The daily norms of fruits do not exceed a couple of pieces. Berries – no more than 150 grams.
Diabetics should not be hungry. If you have to leave the house for a long time, you need to have biscuit-type cookies, fruits, yogurt – products that allow you to organize a small snack.
You can diversify your meals with vegetable caviar, lightly salted fish, aspic dishes. Desserts are prepared using sugar substitutes. Do not use margarine for cooking. A diabetic patient has to strictly take into account the calorie content of foods eaten, find out the glycemic index of foods and refrain from a number of dishes. However, if you follow the instructions of a specialist doctor, it is easy to achieve a varied and tasty menu that fully satisfies not only the needs of the body, but also the desires of the patient himself. Adhering to the principles of rational nutrition, it is possible to significantly improve the quality of life and protect yourself from the troubles that usually accompany a serious illness. In combination with a diet, moderate physical activity should be used, time should be taken for walks in the fresh air. The intensity of life with diabetes does not decrease if you clearly follow certain rules, both in nutrition and in organizing your daily routine.