Doctors say that “every diabetic has its own diabetes”, and in fact, this statement is true. Therefore, each patient needs their own type 2 diabetes diets to treat the disease.
The general principles of blood sugar control are the same for everyone, but in reality, effective tactics are only individually for each person, depending on the course of the disease, its stage, comorbidities and other factors that have a direct and indirect effect on the development of diabetes …
It is known that in a number of situations the disease requires injections of a hormone – insulin. In cases where the patient adheres to a low-carb diet for diabetics, it will still not work to completely abandon insulin. An exception is a newly diagnosed diabetes, and due to adherence to the strictest diet, it is possible to completely abandon injections.
At the same time, it is worth knowing that the dosage of basal insulin will decrease over time, and therefore it is important not to miss that period of time when the likely hypoglycemia occurs. Consideration needs to be given to what a low-carb diet entails in type 2 as well as type 1 diabetes. And what foods does the diet include?
Low-carb diet for type 1 diabetes: basic principles
Initially, when diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, a person should understand that he does not go on a strict diet, he simply changes his lifestyle, in particular, makes up his diet in such a way that it is complete and balanced.
All these actions are aimed at lowering the level of glucose in the blood of a person, because the less carbohydrates are supplied, the less the likelihood of disease progression, and the likelihood of good health and stable blood sugar at a normal level increases several times.
Regardless of whether the patient takes medications or not, he is shown a health-improving diet. At the moment, it is not as strict as it was before, but it implies some restrictions.
There are the following reasons for changing dietary rules:
- Each patient has a special device for measuring blood sugar – a glucometer, through which you can find out the glucose content at any time at home. The need to visit a medical institution every time to take a blood test has disappeared.
- The dose of the hormone, which is administered by patients immediately before eating, is not fixed, and the person can vary it.
- Due to the availability of medical information, patients with diabetes can calculate the amount of carbohydrates in food themselves in order to find the required amount of insulin for themselves.
Important advice: in diabetes mellitus, it is necessary to learn how to correctly correlate the amount of carbohydrates that a person consumes with food and the dosage of the hormone required for administration.
A low-carbohydrate diet for diabetics is a guarantee that the patient’s quality of life will not deteriorate, that he will live a full and normal life in a normal rhythm.
In addition, a type 1 diabetes diet helps prevent possible complications of cardiovascular disease.
The first type of diabetes: menu, food
In the presence of diabetes mellitus, it is recommended to monitor your body weight, and eat in such a way that the patient’s weight is within the normal range. Before eating food, it is necessary to assess its carbohydrate balance.
You need to enrich your menu for a week, and for the rest of the time, with those foods that contain carbohydrates and have a low glycemic index. It will also be important to know your glycemic profile in order to choose the right diet and foods.
If the patient is overweight against the background of diabetes mellitus, then it is recommended to limit the amount of animal fats. If the patient’s weight is normal, then there is no need to control the amount of fat, since the fat content of the consumed food will not affect the dosage of insulin administered.
Advice for diabetics: In case of type 1 disease, the patient’s diet necessarily includes the required amount of calories and fiber. At the same time, the patient can eat table salt, granulated sugar like healthy people, but not abusing.
Foods to be excluded from the diet:
- Ice cream, chocolate and other sweets, preserves.
- Marinades, salty and smoked dishes.
- Fatty dairy products.
- High fat first courses.
- Store-bought concentrated juices, carbonated sweet liquids.
- Sweet fruits: grapes, banana, peach.
- Sweet pastry pastries, rolls and more.
Foods that can be eaten with diabetes mellitus:
- All products are made from flour if they are made from whole grains.
- Okroshka, first courses with vegetable broths.
- Seafood, lean fish fillet.
- Vegetables and fruits that are low in sugar.
- Dried fruits. As a rule, compotes, fruit drinks and so on are prepared from them, but without granulated sugar.
- Porridge, fermented milk products, natural honey (in moderation).
Regardless of what type of diabetes the patient has, a person should always control the consumption of fruits, dairy products, pasta, cereals.
In addition, each diabetic is recommended to have a special notebook, where he will record the consumption of sugar along with food. This action will facilitate the preparation of the diet in order to avoid exceeding the amount of sugar.
Low-carb diet for type 2 diabetes
For type 2 diabetics, the Atkins diet is recommended, which includes 4 phases. Each of the phases has its own characteristics, and its own duration in time.
The first phase is the most stringent; its duration is two weeks or more. During this time period, the patient’s body is in ketosis, as a result of which fats are broken down.
At this phase, no more than 20 grams of carbohydrates are consumed per day, fractional meals are required – 3-5 times a day. Serving volume at one time should not exceed 300 grams of food, and the interval between meals should not exceed 6 hours.
Important advice: it is necessary to maintain the balance of fluid in the body, therefore it is recommended to drink at least 8-9 glasses of regular liquid per day; they leave the table with a slight feeling of hunger.
Main food items on the menu:
- Lean meat, fish.
- Seafood – shrimps, mussels.
- Chicken and quail eggs.
- Vegetable oil.
In the first phase, it is forbidden to eat sweet food, bread, ketchup, nut products, sunflower seeds, carrots, as well as foods containing a lot of starch.
In limited quantities, you can eat:
- Tomatoes, cucumbers.
- Low-fat cottage cheese.
- Olives, white cabbage.
- Fresh zucchini, eggplant.
- Dairy products.
For type 2 diabetics, it is recommended to introduce optimal physical activity into their lives in order to activate the process of losing weight and getting rid of excess weight. Medical experience shows that if you adhere to all the rules of the first phase, you can lose weight by 5-6 kilograms.
The second phase of the diet can be two weeks in duration, or maybe two years. The duration of such a diet depends on the initial weight of the patient. At this stage, you need to find out the required dose of carbohydrates, which will allow you to eat properly and rationally, while losing weight. If during it the weight begins to increase, or stop at one point, you need to return to the first phase.
The third phase assumes that the patient has reached normal weight. At this moment, the amount of carbohydrates is determined, which will allow you to be in such weight without shifts in any direction. The fourth and final phase is for life. The required carbohydrate content is calculated based on a special low-carb table.
Relying on it, the patient will be able to compose his diet, and even come up with new recipes for a low-carbohydrate diet for diabetes.
Low-carb diet menu for the week: type 1 and 2 diabetes
The 7-day menu for the first type of diabetes includes no more than 1400 calories per day. That is, such a diet will help not only cope with excess body weight, but also improve the patient’s overall well-being.
For diabetics who do not have problems with being overweight, it is permissible to increase the amount of food consumed.
It is worth noting that many patients underestimate the importance of such nutrition, considering it an unnecessary and stupid restriction, which is fundamentally wrong.
In fact, the medical experience of specialists shows that proper nutrition helps control sugar levels, and in the vast majority of cases, prevents the development of complications.
Breakfast might look like this:
- Porridge on water, a small piece of cheese and bread, water or a cup of tea without granulated sugar.
- An omelet of several steamed eggs, a boiled piece of veal, a small tomato and a slice of whole grain bread.
- Low fat cabbage rolls, a slice of bread, low fat yogurt.
Lunch options for type 1 diabetes:
- Fresh vegetable salad, the first course – vegetable borscht, steamed meatballs, cabbage stewed in a small amount of vegetable oil, a slice of bread.
- Boiled chicken breast, vegetable salad, pumpkin porridge.
- Boiled meat or fish fillets, tomato and cucumber salad, pasta.
For an afternoon snack, you can eat low-calorie cottage cheese, washed down with rosehip decoction; oranges; grapefruit; low-fat kefir.
A diabetic’s dinner may look like this:
- Boiled meat plus boiled cabbage.
- Stewed cabbage and boiled fish fillets.
- Boiled chicken, stewed asparagus.
- Cottage cheese casserole, tea.
The second type of diabetes involves the preparation of an optimal and individual menu, which takes into account the amount of carbohydrates. It is not necessary to calculate the intake of proteins and fats.
To design a seven-day meal plan, consider the following pattern:
- It is better to eat protein products for breakfast; it is recommended to consume exclusively green unsweetened tea.
- At lunchtime, give preference to fish or lean meat, vegetable side dishes or a small amount of bread, porridge.
- For dinner, fish or meat dishes are also recommended, the main cooking method is boiling or baking, as well as unsweetened vegetables and fruits.
As practice shows, diabetes is an insidious disease that requires not only adequate treatment, but also adherence to strict dietary rules. Exclusively complex therapy will not allow to worsen the patient’s quality of life, as well as improve the patient’s well-being and general condition.
Below is a table of compatible foods to help diabetics choose the right diet.