In recent years, the number of people with diabetes has been increasing in the world. According to various estimates, about 5-6% of the population are sick with diabetes mellitus.
The content of the article
Prediabetes is a disease in which blood sugar levels are steadily elevated, and this condition can be completely hidden from the person. The period of high sugar levels is quite long. This is the time when diabetes can be avoided.
Risk factors for prediabetes
With age, the likelihood of certain diseases increases. For men and women over the age of 45, an annual blood sugar test is required. Years of scientific research have identified risk factors that contribute to the onset of this disease.
- Excess weight;
- Belonging to the Asian or Negroid race.
Who is at risk
- People with diseases of the liver, pancreas;
- The presence of high blood cholesterol levels;
- Sedentary lifestyle;
- A diet with a predominance of fast carbohydrates;
- Neuropsychic overload and a tendency to negative thinking;
- Brain trauma;
- Infection, intoxication.
Why prediabetes is dangerous
At this stage, the classic symptoms of diabetes are absent. You can suspect high levels of sugar in urine and blood by the following signs:
- Unexplained tiredness;
- Disorders of the heart;
- Sleep disturbances;
- Violation of water-salt metabolism: permanent thirst and frequent urination;
- Dermatological manifestations: dryness and itching of the skin, non-healing wounds and ulcers.
More often than not, people at risk in the earliest stages of diabetes and prediabetes do not add up to these symptoms. Therefore, precious time can be lost. At this stage, it is possible to prevent the transition of prediabetes to the stage of the disease, in which the sugar level in the body exceeds the permissible norms.
About prediabetes suggests indicators of glycated hemoglobin in the body. Figures ranging from 5.9% to 6.5% indicate a high sugar content in the body in the previous 3-4 months.
The disease of diabetes mellitus in recent years has become an epidemic. Diabetes significantly shortens life expectancy and impairs its quality. All types of diabetes mellitus lead to severe secondary diseases:
- Hypertension, atherosclerosis of the vessels of the body;
- Chronic renal failure
- Development of cataracts, retinal damage;
- Gangrenous lesions of soft tissues, leading to amputation of the upper and lower extremities.
In the case when a patient comes to see a therapist complaining of weakness, thirst, frequent urination, 3 biochemical tests can be used to make an accurate diagnosis and determine the degree of the disease and treatment tactics.
- An indicator of the level of glycemia in the body. Numbers between 5.5 and 6.2 indicate the stage of prediabetes ;
- Glucose Tolerance Test. This analysis allows you to accurately determine whether the increase in glucose levels in the body is a single one, or it is a progressive reaction of the body;
- Biochemical analysis of urine for sugar level.
Exceeding the rates established by scientific research indicates prediabetes . Endocrinologists call this term a state of the body in which the likelihood of diabetes mellitus increases significantly.
The essence of treatment and prevention of prediabetes
When prediabetes is detected, the main task of the endocrinologist and his patient is to reduce the body’s resistance to insulin, a special hormone that allows glucose to be processed. This condition is typical for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In type 1 diabetes, which is much less common, the human body produces insulin poorly, and the essence of the treatment is that the body needs to inject a certain amount of insulin. This type of diabetes is characterized by a more dangerous course, an increased risk of quick death if untreated.
Diabetes mellitus is an incurable disease. All efforts of doctors are aimed at ensuring the normal functioning of the body, preventing severe secondary diseases. Thanks to the advances in modern medicine in treatment, lifestyle changes, life expectancy decreases slightly.
Prediabetes is a condition in which there is still a good chance of avoiding diabetes. Therefore, it is so important to consult a doctor in time if you have at least two symptoms that characterize diabetes. With the onset of 45 years of age, it is necessary to take a blood sugar test at least once a year.
Diabetic Diet and Lifestyle
When biochemical blood tests indicate that a person is at increased risk of diabetes, doctors do not prescribe drugs. At this stage, changes in lifestyle and eating habits play an important role.
Prediabetes is life changing
High blood glucose levels increase the risk of heart disease. Even if the numbers are within acceptable limits, the threat to the heart increases.
Therapists, endocrinologists make recommendations for their patients in order to reduce the risk of transition from prediabetes to the stage of diabetes.
- Regular periodic monitoring of blood glucose levels;
- Drug therapy is used in extreme cases and is aimed at treating secondary diseases;
- Preventive medical examination to maintain the body;
- Combine vigorous exercise with a low-carb, fat-restricted diet.
How to create a diabetic menu
Eating a diet is an effective way to keep glucose levels within the normal range, not only in the prediabetes stage , but also in milder forms of type 2 diabetes. The special diet for people with pre-diabetic condition is lifelong. It brings good results if it is adhered to. The main goals of the diet are:
- Elimination of nutritional errors that lead to weight gain;
- Correction of metabolic disorders that arise due to an increase in glucose levels in the body;
- Increasing the body’s defenses, preventing complications.
The general principle of making menus for prediabetes is as follows:
- Energy value is calculated based on age, gender, physical activity, excess weight. The calorie content of the diet is reduced if there is excess weight by no more than 10-20% of the diet of a healthy person;
- The amount of carbohydrates decreases. Fast carbohydrates – sugar, sweets, baked goods are replaced with slow carbohydrates. Nutritionists recommend including wholemeal bread, cereals, unsweetened vegetables and fruits in the daily menu. Sugar consumption should not exceed 25 – 30 grams per day, which is equal to about 1 tablespoon. It is necessary to take into account the presence of sugar in finished products (a large amount of sugar is found in bread, ketchup, mayonnaise, ready-made sauces, carbonated drinks). The absence of sweet taste does not at all guarantee the absence of sugar in the product, since sugar is used as a natural preservative;
In a tablespoon of ketchup, sugar accounts for half of the total weight of the finished product, and a glass of carbonated drink contains 6-8 teaspoons of sugar.
- The amount of protein in the diet should be sufficient – at least 150 grams. This is because in the case of prediabetes , liver cells are affected. The building material for the liver is plant and animal protein, which enters the body with a complete, balanced diet.
Vitamins and minerals play an important role in preventing prediabetes . The body, in which metabolic processes are disturbed, the level of glucose in the blood is increased, the following vitamins and minerals are especially necessary:
- Vitamins A, C – increase the body’s resistance to infections;
- To reduce hypoglycemia, a sufficient level of manganese, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, pyridoxine and niacin in the body is important;
- Carotene, retinol, copper and zinc are important for normal liver function.
Since with an elevated blood sugar level in a person, water-salt metabolism is disturbed, the likelihood of dehydration is high. You can limit the amount of water you drink only after consulting a doctor if you have problems with the kidneys and cardiovascular system.
Examples of diets
In terms of its composition, the diet aimed at the prevention of diabetes is quite diverse and complete. Foods with a high glycemic index are completely excluded from it. These include sweets and candies, as well as honey. Grapes and bananas are completely excluded from sweet fruits. Potatoes, rice, pasta made from premium flour are replaced with brown and unprocessed rice, pasta made from wholemeal flour, as well as buckwheat, barley and barley porridge. Nutritionists recommend that you stop eating ready-made foods that contain hidden sugar. Sauces, ketchups, drinks, sweets must be prepared at home. The preferred method of cooking is boiling, baking, and braising. Nutritionists recommend purchasing a kitchen scale in order to accurately determine and control the weight of the food you eat.
Sample diet menu for lowering blood sugar
- Breakfast: boiled fish (120 gr.), Boiled potatoes (200 gr.), Tea with milk (200 ml.)
- Snack: whole grain bread sandwich with cheese (30/30 gr.)
- Lunch: vegetable soup (500 gr.), Boiled beef (100 gr.)
- Snack: a glass of yogurt
- Dinner: curd casserole with sour cream (200/50 g.), Herbal tea (200 ml.)
- Breakfast: oatmeal in milk (350 gr.), Rosehip broth (200 ml.)
- Snack: bran bread sandwich with butter (30/30 gr.)
- Lunch: wholemeal pasta (300 gr.), Boiled chicken fillet (100 gr.)
- Snack: a glass of kefir
- Dinner: zucchini pancakes with sour cream (250/50 gr.), Fresh fruit compote without sugar (150 gr.)
- Breakfast: scrambled eggs from 2 proteins, green tea with milk (200 ml.)
- Snack: grated carrots with sour cream (200/50 gr.)
- Lunch: squash soup (500 gr.), Steam rabbit cutlet (120 gr.)
- Snack: a glass of ayran
- Dinner: stewed cabbage with vegetable oil (200 gr.), Chicken liver (100 gr.) A slice of whole grain bread (30 gr.)
- Breakfast: curd cakes with sour cream (200/50 gr.), Instant cocoa with milk without sugar (150 ml.)
- Snack: cottage cheese with fresh herbs (200/50 gr.)
- Lunch: pumpkin puree soup (500 gr.), Turkey schnitzel (100 gr.)
- Snack: a glass of yogurt
- Dinner: vinaigrette with linseed oil (200/10 gr.), Boiled fish (120 gr.), A slice of whole grain bread (30 gr.)
- Breakfast: 2 egg omelet with tomato, chamomile tea (250 ml.)
- Snack: tomato and cucumber salad with olive oil (200/5 gr.)
- Lunch: beetroot soup with sour cream (500 gr.), Chicken soufflé (150 gr.)
- Snack: a glass of plain yogurt
- Dinner: squash pancakes (200 gr.), Boiled veal (100 gr.), A slice of whole grain bread (30 gr.)
- Breakfast: pearl barley porridge (300 gr.), Chicory drink (150 ml.)
- Snack: salad of boiled beets with nuts (200/30 gr.)
- Lunch: brown rice (200 gr.), Boiled chicken liver (120 gr.)
- Snack: a glass of fermented baked milk
- Dinner: boiled fish (120 gr.), Baked vegetables (zucchini, carrots and peppers) (200 gr.), A slice of whole grain bread (30 gr.)
- Breakfast: buckwheat porridge with milk (200/100 g ), herbal tea mix (250 ml.)
- Snack: cottage cheese with sour cream and herbs (200/50 gr.)
- Lunch: fresh vegetable soup (zucchini, celery, tomato) (500 gr.), Veal meatballs (120 gr.)
- Snack: a glass of kefir
- Dinner: salad of lentils, tomato, pepper and beef liver (120/50/50/100 gr.), A slice of whole grain bread (30 gr.)
A similar diet is used by nutritionists to determine the tactics of treatment. If, after a 7-day diet, the sugar level drops to the desired level, then this means that prediabetes can be defeated by strict adherence to the diet. After 2-4 weeks, it is possible to add 50 grams of carbohydrates.
Traditional medicine recipes
Therapy, as well as the prevention of prediabetes with medicinal plants, in some cases can give a good result.
Reception of any medicinal herbs is possible only after consultation with an endocrinologist, who will select the dosage and duration of therapy.
The use of medicinal herbs is used as part of complex therapy. And at the stage of prediabetes, it enhances the positive effect of diet and a healthy lifestyle. Herbal therapy is aimed at:
- Strengthening the body’s defenses;
- Regulation of metabolic processes;
- Decreased insulin requirements;
- Decrease in blood sugar levels.
For the prevention of prediabetes, infusions and decoctions of chicory, Jerusalem artichoke, elecampane, dandelion, peony, clover, pomegranate are very useful. The endocrinologist sets the duration of prophylaxis with medicinal plants, and will also suggest the best combinations for each patient individually.