Urinalysis for diabetes

Urinalysis for diabetes is now a widely used procedure. Urine in diabetes mellitus reflects changes occurring in the internal environment of the body, including in type 1 or type 2 diabetes. A general urinalysis, urinalysis according to Nechiporenko, a study of a daily urinalysis, a three- glass sample are used.

Why regular urinalysis is important for diabetics

In addition to the presence of excess sugar in the urine, this laboratory test for diabetes can determine the presence of kidney problems. Pathologies or insufficiency of the urinary system occur in 40% of people with impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

Kidney disease is indicated by the presence of excess protein in the urine. This condition is called microalbuminuria : it develops when a protein from the blood (albumin) enters the urine. Protein leakage, if left untreated, can lead to permanent kidney failure. Urinalysis should be performed every six months from the time of diagnosis.
However, the presence of protein is not the only problem that is detected by a urinalysis. This study also reveals other deviations (complications) that occur in patients with diabetes.

Urinalysis evaluates:

  • The physical properties of urine (color, transparency, the presence of sediment) – an indirect indicator of many diseases is the presence of impurities;
  • Chemical properties (acidity, indirectly reflecting the change in composition);
  • Specific gravity: an indicator that reflects the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine;
  • Indicators of protein, sugar, acetone (ketone bodies): the presence of these compounds in excess indicates serious metabolic disorders (for example, the presence of acetone indicates the stage of decompensation of diabetes);
  • Urine sediment using microscopic laboratory examination (the technique allows to identify concomitant inflammation in the urinary system).

Sometimes a study is prescribed to determine the content of diastase in the urine. This enzyme is synthesized by the pancreas and breaks down carbohydrates (mainly starch). A high level of diastase usually indicates the presence of pancreatitis, an inflammatory process in the pancreas.

Source: saydiabetu.net

Indications for carrying out

Indications for carrying out are:

  • For the first time detected violations of carbohydrate metabolism.
  • Planned monitoring of the state and compensation of the course of diabetes mellitus.
  • Signs of decompensation of diabetes mellitus: uncontrolled fluctuations in glucose levels, changes in body weight, decrease in normal performance, exercise tolerance, changes in the level of consciousness and other criteria.

In general, everyone can undergo urinalysis studies, at their own request. Currently, laboratory studies of this level are quite accessible to many. But it should be remembered that only a specialist with good qualifications can legitimately evaluate.

Urinalysis for diabetes mellitus indicators

indicators norm in diabetes
general properties of urine
color (col) light yellow or straw yellow transparent, colorless
transparency (CLA) absolutely transparent absolutely transparent
smell nonspecific acetone, apple smell
density (SG) 1.010 – 1.022 >1.022 for long -term hyperglycemia (blood test for glycated hemoglobin will be positive) <1.010 for renal failure
reaction to acidity ( pH ) slightly acidic (5.0 – 7.0) <5.0
protein (PRO) No >0.033 g/l
glucose (GLU) No may be present
ketones (KET) No there is
bilirubin (BIL) No No
urobilin (UBG) or urobilinogen no, or very little in the morning no, or very little in the morning
nitrites No No
hemoglobin No No
urine sediment properties
squamous epithelium permissible up to 3 in p / sp permissible up to 3 in p / sp
transitional epithelium little (1 in p / sp ) little (1 in p / sp )
renal epithelium No No
leukocytes (LEU) 0.0 – 6.0 0.0 – 6.0
erythrocytes unchanged (RBC, BLD) permissible up to 2 in p / sp permissible up to 2 in p / sp
erythrocytes changed permissible up to 2 in p / sp permissible up to 2 in p / sp
cylinders no, or hyaline up to 2 in p / sp no, or hyaline up to 2 in p / sp
salt components no, or very few above the norm
slime No No
bacteria No No
fungi No No

Source netdia.ru

Urinalysis for microalbuminuria in diabetes mellitus

A positive analysis for microalbuminuria indicates damage to the vascular system of the kidneys. Indirectly, a high protein content indicates problems in all blood vessels in the body, which increases the risk of heart disease.

If, after conducting this kind of study, it was found that the result is positive, this indicates serious damage to the kidneys. In addition, this analysis allows you to diagnose other diseases of the circulatory system that cause problems in the functioning of the heart. In this regard, the doctor will perform a number of actions:

  1. He will prescribe medications to reduce the process of kidney damage.
  2. Prompt treatment of diabetes mellitus.
  3. He will prescribe a blood pressure check, and the process of measuring pressure will be carried out at each visit to the doctor.
  4. It will control the level of cholesterol in the patient’s body (the norm of values \u200b\u200bmust be observed). This item is the most important for the correct determination of the state.


Changes in the urine are not always present in diabetes mellitus. They can only appear during crises. If the disease is in the stage of stable compensation, then completely different processes become the cause of the appearance of changes in the urine. However, a complete planned examination for diabetes mellitus must be carried out at least every six months.

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