What is diabetes, in simple words?

Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs in a person when their body stops producing enough insulin on its own or cannot use the one it does.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin is needed so that the cells of our body can absorb glucose (sugar).

Insulin works like a “key” that “lets” glucose into the cell. In cells, glucose combines with oxygen to form energy.

That is, when there is no insulin, it is not enough or it does not work, glucose from the blood does not enter the cells, but accumulates in the vessels. That is why the main analysis for determining diabetes is a blood glucose test. If there is more glucose in the blood than it should be, then most likely the doctor will say that you have one of the types of diabetes.

If diabetes is not treated and managed , over time, high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) will lead to vascular damage. Vessels permeate almost all vital human organs. Naturally, damage to them leads to complications of diabetes – various other diseases that can lead to disability in a person with diabetes.

Diabetes as a chronic disease is characterized by a violation of all types of metabolism: carbohydrate, fat, protein, mineral and water-salt. In addition to humans, animals can suffer from diabetes – cats, dogs, koalas and others.

In the modern world, there is everything necessary to keep diabetes under control – that is, to keep blood glucose levels within the same limits as in people without diabetes (4 – 7 mmol / l (72 – 126 mg / dl )).

For this you need:

  • access to quality medical care,
  • quality tableted antidiabetic drugs,
  • high-quality insulin in sufficient quantities and modern means for its administration (syringe pens, insulin pumps),
  • modern means for self-monitoring of blood glucose ( glucometers , continuous monitoring of blood glucose),
  • self-education and self-management regarding diabetes.

Unfortunately, today not all countries have access to these resources in sufficient quantities for people with diabetes.

Types of diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed when, as a result of an autoimmune process, the pancreas stops producing insulin in the amount necessary for life. The autoimmune process means that for some reason the body begins to attack its own cells (it destroys the beta cells that produce insulin). Treatment is lifelong insulin therapy.

Type 2 diabetes occurs when a person’s beta cells produce insulin, but the body’s sensitivity to insulin worsens or disappears completely (there is insulin, but the cells cannot “open”). Most often, the cause of this is excess or altered adipose tissue – it does not allow insulin to act correctly. Treatment – lifestyle correction (diet, exercise , etc.), special tablet preparations, and if they do not cope, then insulin therapy.

Gestational diabetes is diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. It is often compensated with insulin therapy. In most cases, in women with gestational diabetes, it disappears after childbirth. For some, it progresses to type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes is a dangerous but controllable disease!

Self-care, self-discipline and an active lifestyle will help you avoid the complications of diabetes and lead a fulfilling life.

Write in the comments what you personally lack for successful diabetes compensation – and we will try to find the necessary information or products for you. Be healthy!

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