Menu for patients with type 2 diabetes
The content of the article:
- Table 9 with type 2 diabetes mellitus: features of the menu
- Nutrition for diabetes: table number 5
- Diets for diabetics: table number eight
- Bread units
- Diabetes diet type 2: menu for a week by day
- A diet for diabetics of 2 types: a menu for a week and recipes
- Secrets of preparing diet food
Cardinal nutrition correction is the dominant mode of therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. A well-designed diet helps reduce sugar, improves pancreas, normalizes metabolic processes in the body.
Diet 9 in diabetes involves the exclusion of all foods characterized by a high glycemic index. First of all, the rule concerns fast-digestible carbohydrates.
Table number 5 is recommended for diabetics if the underlying disease is complicated by a violation of the functionality of the liver, problems with biliary tract and gallbladder. This diet strengthens the separation of bile, facilitates the work of the liver and biliary tract.
As is known, type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by excess weight or obesity, as a result of which the patient is prescribed dietary food number 8, restoring metabolic processes, contributing to a smooth weight loss.
So, let's consider the general principles of nutrition, concerning the diet regime №9, №8 and №5, and also find out how to lose weight in diabetes without harm to health? Do we learn the peculiarities of nutrition for patients with diabetes on insulin?
Table 9 for type 2 diabetes mellitus: features of the menu
In the treatment of "sweet" disease important is the right diet, which helps to normalize the concentration of glucose in the body, not allowing a hyperglycemic state with all the ensuing consequences.
Table number nine is characterized by a balanced and rational menu that allows you to provide the patient with all the necessary minerals and vitamins for a full life.
Eat often and in small portions, while serving at one time does not exceed the amount of food in 250 grams. The ideal number of meals is 5-6, where 3 main meals and 2-3 snacks.
It should be removed from the table, sharp and fried dishes, spices, smoked and marinated food, food with preservatives and coloring. Abandon the use of alcoholic beverages or reduce their quantity to a minimum.
The basis of the diet is to limit the consumption of fat components and quickly digested carbohydrates, while the proteins remain at the same level, in other words, they can be eaten the same amount as a healthy person.
On the Internet, you can find reminders with lists of products approved for use by patients with diabetes mellitus. They can be downloaded and printed. Admissible products:
- Whole-wheat bread, products with bran.
- Cereals - dietary pasta, oatmeal, millet, buckwheat.
- Low-fat fish (hake, cod) and meat (turkey, veal, chicken breast, rabbit).
- Berries / fruit - kiwi, grapefruit, banana, pears, blueberries, cranberries, cranberries, red and black currants.
- Drinks - mineral water without gas, broths based on herbs, dogrose, cranberries, coffee drink, weakly concentrated tea, etc.
It is strictly forbidden to consume sugar, it is permissible during diabetic nutrition to replace it with xylitol or sorbitol. Use in a strictly limited dosage.
Exclude from the diet - sweet fruit and berries, confectionery, carbonated drinks, concentrated juices, fatty meat and fish, spices, fatty milk and sour-milk products, pickled dishes.
Nutrition for diabetes: table №5
Caloric content of the fifth diet per day does not exceed 2000 kilocalories. However, there are special recommendations regarding the amount of carbohydrates consumed, fatty substances and protein components.
It is permissible to include about 90 grams of fat per day, while more than 30% of this amount is vegetable fats. Eat up to 400 grams of carbohydrates per day, no more than 90 grams of protein (60% - animal origin).
It is important to observe the drinking regime, in addition to tea / broths with berries, etc. it is recommended to drink at least two liters of clean water a day. In a day you can consume up to ten grams of table salt.
Speaking generally, diet number 5 is similar to the general rules with food number 9, but there are certain additions:
- Every day, you must adhere to the same schedule.
- Rough food is crushed by a grater, a blender or a meat grinder.
- You can not eat too hot or cold food.
Menu for a week with type 2 diabetes mellitus helps to make up a doctor. In the preparation of the diet, numerous nuances are taken into account: the degree of physical activity of the patient, the "experience" of the endocrine disease, the initial level of glucose, age, the attendant ailments.
With the fifth diet allowed to eat sweet fruits and berries, but this point is controversial for diabetics, as this leads to increased glycemia, the probability of complications increases. Therefore, despite the diet's permission, the diabetic sweet foods are excluded from the menu.
The duration of this regime in accordance with the numbered diet varies from 3 to 5 weeks.
With good tolerance, the patient can adhere to the diet for several years.
Diets for diabetics: table number eight
The second type of "sweet" disease is a frequent companion of extra pounds or obesity, which is considered a serious disease that requires adequate and persistent treatment. In the course are medicines, special food, physiotherapy procedures and other methods.
Extra pounds are a serious burden on the cardiovascular system, a high probability of progression of the underlying disease, since the fat layer interferes with the absorption of glucose at the cellular level.
Therefore, an effective diet at number 8 is recommended for weight loss. Among all types of diets, it provides a positive therapeutic result, due to improved metabolic processes in the body.
The daily menu means consumption of not more than 100 grams of protein and 90 grams of fat, about 120-200 grams of carbohydrates. The total energy value varies from 1,700 to 2,000 calories.
Diet in type 2 diabetes mellitus excludes products:
- Fried meat and fish, mushrooms.
- Canned food both fish and meat.
- Pickles, marinated dishes.
- Soups on rich meat and fish broths.
- Mayonnaise, ketchup, mustard.
- Spices and spices.
The first dishes are prepared on the basis of a vegetarian menu, that is, with the addition of vegetables or legumes. It is permissible to eat puree soups based on fruits and berries, milk. Occasionally, it is permitted to cook broth on the basis of bones.
In the preparation of salt is not used, podsalivayut already prepared food. The permitted norm per day is one-third of a teaspoonful.
The total amount of liquid per day does not exceed 1.2 liters.
In combination with the restriction of sodium chloride, there is normalization of water and salt metabolism in the body, which is slowed down by obesity.
In medical practice, there is a term such as a unit of bread - a conditionally variable amount that helps to measure the amount of carbohydrates in a particular product. In other words, a specific "dimensional" spoon, which is always at hand.
One is equated to a piece of bread, divided into two parts, the thickness of which is one centimeter. Its value varies from 12 to 15 carbohydrates. The same number of carbohydrates is observed in a small apple, half a glass of buckwheat porridge.
In a day a healthy person is recommended to consume from 17 to 28 units, which are divided into six meals. Thus, for each meal there are about 3-5 units.
One XE on the background of diabetes mellitus promotes an increase in the concentration of sugar in the blood by 1.8 units, which requires the introduction of 1 to 4 units of insulin for type 1 diabetes. Knowing these parameters, diabetics can easily calculate the body's need for hormonal substances.
On the Internet, there is the most complete table of XE in food. As for the ready-made dish, the quantity must be calculated in accordance with each ingredient included in its composition.
Patients with different builds and strengths require a different amount of XE in the daily menu.
At normal weight with optimal physical activity, units need more than patients with low-active lifestyle and obese.
Diet for type 2 diabetes: menus for a week by day
The weekly menu for a diabetic should be a doctor, since all the rations presented in the virtual network are indicative and may not be appropriate in a particular clinical picture.
The recommended diet should be followed not one week / month, but always - after all this is the basis of therapy, helping to prevent hyperglycemia and glycemic coma.
Even with the normalization of sugar, one should not abandon new eating habits, since a return to harmful food will provoke a worsening of the clinical picture.
Here are a few menus per day:
- Option 1. As a breakfast, a low-fat curd mixed with allowed fruits or berries is ideal. You can have a snack with an apple, grapefruit or a glass of kefir. For lunch, a vegetable soup, a baked turkey with stewed cabbage, is served to the table. Second lunch - fruit salad without dressing or cabbage salad with tomatoes. For dinner, baked in its own juice fish, vegetables, boiled in unsalted water.
- Option 2. For breakfast use buckwheat porridge, snack - a few small apples or one pear. For lunch, borsch, boiled lean beef, homemade compote without sugar. The second snack is a decoction of rose hips, 2 rye crumbs. Dinner boiled fish with vegetables, steamed.
You can make a diet yourself, taking into account the allowed and prohibited foods. With strict adherence, it is possible to reduce glucose, stabilize it at the required level.
In the absence of medical contraindications diet number 9 is combined with active sports.
Diet for diabetics of 2 types: menu for the week and recipes
Recipes for diabetics are represented by a wide variety of tasty and healthy dishes that provide satiety for a long time. Consider several recipes that are popular.
To prepare stuffed zucchini you need 4-5 pieces of zucchini, half a glass of buckwheat, 10 chopped mushrooms, 2-3 dried mushrooms, onions, one clove of garlic, 200 grams of low-fat sour cream, vegetable oil.
The cooking process: send the buckwheat to the pan, add water so that the liquid covers the croup by one centimeter. After that, add the chopped onion, dried mushrooms. Tumble on a small fire for about 20 minutes.
Cut the mushrooms, put out with water in a frying pan, adding a clove of garlic to them. Afterwards, the buckwheat mixture with vegetables is moved to a skillet. Wash the zucchini, cut along, by means of a teaspoon to get rid of the pulp.
Lay the "stuffing" in the boats, sprinkle with ground paprika, sprinkle a little. To send in an oven. 10 minutes before the readiness is poured with sour cream. To the table to serve in a hot form, sprinkle with any herbs.
Vitamin salad for the diabetic:
- Ingredients: kohlrabi cabbage, fresh cucumbers, one clove of garlic, lots of greens, olive oil.
- Cut cucumbers, chop cabbage, squeeze out garlic, add greens.
- Stir and season with oil.
Recipes for foods suggest a vitaminized and balanced diet, so that the body does not lack the necessary substances for normal functioning.
Specially designed dishes with recipes for diabetics allow you to make the menu tasty and varied.
Secrets of preparing diet food
Definitely, certain restrictions in nutrition lead to the fact that the patient wants exactly the product that is categorically forbidden to eat. Unfortunately, to withstand a diet without a breakdown is hard work.
There are certain cunnings in the diet that contribute to improving the taste of diet food, which eliminates overeating and frustration.
If you really want a sweet one, you can eat one or two sweets from the diabetic department, but no more. If you want to drink sodas, you can make a drink yourself at home.
For one liter of water add a peeled and sliced orange, a few slices of mandarin, a couple of kiwi slices or any other permitted fruit. Add a sugar substitute. Leave to lemonade for 1 hour, you can eat.
We will sound the secrets of preparing diet food:
- In cutlets instead of bread or mango add cabbage, carrots and oats.
- Vegetable salads fill with lemon juice or add pomegranate seeds.
- Raw vegetables can be grinded by making pate. Eat with a dry biscuit.
- In fruit salads add a little cinnamon, which gives a more intense taste and aroma.
- When stuffing tomatoes and zucchini, rice is replaced with buckwheat or shredded cabbage.
In the 21st century, the problem of eating diabetics was solved. You can find a lot of options for cooking various dishes that will find a decent place on the table, while improving overall health and not lead to increased blood glucose.