Breakthrough in the treatment of type 2 diabetes

An international team of scientists led by the Karolinska Institute of Stockholm (Karolinska Institutet) (Sweden) has developed a new type of treatment for type 2 diabetes, based on the inhibition of the signal pathway of vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF-B. This approach leads to the prevention of fat accumulation in the muscles and heart, with the result that the cells of these tissues retain the ability to respond to insulin.

In experiments conducted in mice and rats, scientists were able not only to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes, but also slow down the development of an already started disease. The results of the study, which was attended by employees of the Karolinska Institute, the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research) and the biopharmaceutical company CSL Limited (Avstarlija), were published in the journal Nature.

“We opened VEGF-B back in 1995, and since then the VEGF-B research project has been forgotten for a long time, but now we are making one discovery after another. In this study, we showed that growth factor inhibition can help treat and prevent the development of type 2 diabetes, and this can be achieved therapeutically, ”says Professor Ulf Eriksson from the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics ) at the Karolinska Institute.

For type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance is characteristic: cells lose the ability to properly “respond” to insulin, which is necessary for glucose uptake, which leads to an increase in blood sugar levels. Insulin resistance is associated with the accumulation of fat in “unsuitable” organs, such as muscles, blood vessels and the heart. However, the full mechanism of this relationship is not yet known.

However, scientists are certain that VEGF-B protein affects the redistribution and deposition of fats in body tissues. This relationship was established by a group led by Professor Eriksson in a study, the results of which were published in the journal Nature in 2010. The theory formed the basis of a new study, during which the signal path from VEGF-B was blocked in a group of rats and mice with reproduced type 2 diabetes.

The publication reports four related research. In one case, a potential 2H10 drug, which is an antibody that blocks VEGF-B, was injected into mice kept on a special diet for the spontaneous onset of diabetes. As a result, mice did not develop either insulin resistance or diabetes. In addition, the researchers crossed the line of diabetic mice with a line that lacked the ability to synthesize VEGF-B, and found that the descendants were protected from the development of the disease.

In two other experiments, scientists observed mice and rats that were not on a diet for developing diabetes, but on a diet rich in fats, as a result of which obesity developed. In these cases, as a result of treatment with 2H10, the development of the disease started was stopped and “reversed” to different stages.

“The results presented by us in the work indicate a significant breakthrough and a fundamentally new approach to the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes,” says Professor Oke Sjolm (Ake Sjoholm), a diabetologist from Stockholm South General Hospital (Stockholm South General Södersjukhuset) – Modern methods of treating diabetes can cause many side effects, and their effect is gradually weakened. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new strategies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. ”

Current treatments for type 2 diabetes include diet and / or medications that stimulate insulin production or sensitivity to it, or reduce glucose synthesis. After a few years, this treatment is ineffective for approximately 30% of patients who subsequently require insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes reaches the epidemic threshold and, according to the World Health Organization’s projections, it is expected that by 2030 more than half a billion people will suffer from it.

As a candidate for a new drug for diabetes, the study used 2H10, developed on the basis of monoclonal antibodies by the biopharmaceutical company CSL Limited.

Stroke at diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is, above all, a threat to the heart and blood vessels. No wonder that statistics show that about 65% of diabetes deaths occur as a result of a heart attack or stroke. We wrote about myocardial infarction recently in the material Young and Early, or why myocardial infarction looked younger? And now we will talk about the direct connection between diabetes and stroke.

How does stroke occur? Stroke, or acute violation of cerebral circulation, is a sudden lack of blood supply to a certain part of the brain, leading to a disruption in its work. That is, we are talking about the obstruction of blood flow in the cerebral vessels, which can occur for two reasons: – blockage of one of the vessels feeding the brain (ischemic stroke). According to statistics, it occurs in 80% of cases and is caused by the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the vessels; – rupture of the cerebral vessel (hemorrhagic stroke), in which hemorrhage into the brain occurs and a hematoma is formed.

Basically, the cause of hemorrhagic strokes is arterial hypertension with a loss of vascular elasticity. Why do vessels lose elasticity? But in answering this question, we can well trace a clear connection between stroke and diabetes. It is proven that the more time a person has diabetes, the higher the risk of damage to the blood vessels.

The increased risk of vascular disease in diabetes is directly related to high blood pressure, non-compliance with a strict diet, smoking, and the lack of sufficient physical exertion.
In diabetes, atherosclerosis occurs more often as a consequence of the accumulation of harmful cholesterol in the vessel walls. Over time, cholesterol plaques form, which interfere with the free transport of oxygen to the heart muscle. If cholesterol plaque breaks off, a blood clot may appear at this place, which subsequently causes a stroke. A source:

In addition, in diabetes, the walls of the blood vessels of the body become fragile and brittle due to atherosclerotic changes. Rupture of cerebral vessels on the background of hypertension causes hemorrhagic stroke. Is it possible to prevent stroke in diabetes?

If you have atherosclerotic changes in the vascular system, the most constructive method for the prevention of stroke is a combination of diet and medication.

In order to maintain normal blood glucose levels in the treatment of diabetes mellitus complications, blood pressure and blood lipid levels should be monitored with a certain diet and pharmacological agents, which is an important part in the complex treatment of vascular lesions in diabetes mellitus. General recommendations for the prevention of stroke in diabetes can be reduced to the following steps:

– control the level of blood pressure (for people over 40, this ritual should be daily);
– maintain blood pressure numbers at 140/90 and below with emergency medications (alpha receptor stimulants, diuretics, or calcium channel blockers);
– take blood thinning medications (if your doctor has prescribed them);
– Do an ultrasound of the neck vessels supplying the brain and an ECG every six months.
– control the level of sugar and cholesterol in the blood with a glucometer and test strips; Relationship between stroke and diabetes:
– regularly exercise physiotherapy, or at least walk as much as possible on foot;
– stop smoking and alcohol abuse;
– in time to fill the loss of fluid in the body.

It is necessary to drink fractionally, only pure water or unsweetened compote. Mineral water retains fluid in the body and stimulates an increase in pressure.

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