The clinic of diabetes mellitus is determined primarily by the type of disease. Diabetes mellitus can be type 1 and type 2, and gestational diabetes, which occurs in pregnant women, is also separated into a separate nosological unit.
Features of type 1 diabetes
Sugar diabetes 1 Type arises because pancreatic cells stop synthesizing insulin. Normally, insulin transports glucose from the blood plasma to the tissues of the human body. In case there is no insulin, glucose remains in the blood in large quantities, and the tissues experience its pronounced deficiency.
Type 1 diabetes clinic:
- develops in children and young people under the age of 30,
- it begins acutely, sometimes immediately with the development of ketoacidosis and coma,
- the patient is worried about thirst, he can drink up to 10 liters of water per day,
- due to the intake of large quantities of fluid, patients note polyuria, that is, frequent urination, in the amount of 3-7 liters per day.
- manifestations of dehydration: dry skin, mucous membranes and mouth, skin turgor decreases, patients also note dizziness, weakness, drowsiness, decreased performance.
- increased appetite or polyphagia, are a compensatory response to a deficiency of glucose in the tissues. However, despite the large amount of food consumed, patients lose weight very much. Sometimes weight loss is 10-15 kg in a few weeks.
Features of type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes occurs mainly in people who are prone to obesity. Fat, which is found in excess in the tissues of such people, produces a special enzyme that makes tissues insensitive to insulin. This is also called insulin resistance. The pancreas produces a sufficient amount of insulin, or even more than necessary, but since the tissues do not perceive it, it does not transport glucose from the blood plasma to the end points. Therefore, tissues are deficient in glucose, and its blood is in excess.
Clinic of diabetes mellitus type 2:
- starts in people over 30,
- the disease begins gradually and may not manifest itself in any way for a long time,
- patients also experience thirst, dry mouth, polyuria, but these symptoms are not as intense as in patients with type 1 diabetes,
- Considering that such patients often have a whole bunch of diseases (obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease and brain, etc.) symptoms will also be determined by these diseases – headache and muscle pain, weakness, pain behind the sternum, shortness of breath on exertion.
- It is very difficult for patients who are obese and diabetic to lose weight due to constant strong hunger, even after eating. Excess food intake provokes obesity. It turns out a vicious circle.
Thus, the clinic of type 1 and type 2 diabetes is very different, and therefore the approach to the treatment of these diseases is different.