Signs of diabetes in women can develop at different ages. Therefore, in order to recognize the disease at an early stage, it is important to know its initial symptoms and be able to distinguish between its types. So, there are two main types of diabetes mellitus.
In the first type of disease, there is a lack of insulin. Basically, the disease manifests itself sharply and acutely, often leading to the development of a ketoacidotic coma.
The second type of diabetes occurs when there is no insulin sensitivity. It is characterized by an asymptomatic course. In this case, due to the depletion of the pancreas reserves, insulin deficiency occurs in the patient and the disease begins to manifest itself more clearly, but by this time vascular disorders occur, which are often irreversible.
Causes and general symptoms of diabetes in women
In case of malfunctions in metabolic processes and the accumulation of products of incorrect metabolism in tissues in various systems and organs, including the skin, pathological changes occur. As a result, the function of the skin, sweat glands and follicles is impaired.
Read also External signs of diabetes in women: the first symptoms
Also, in patients, local immunity worsens, due to which the dermis is affected by pathogenic microbes. If the course of the disease is severe, then the skin becomes coarse, very scaly and loses its elasticity.
The symptoms of diabetes in women are specific. The main manifestations include:
- the smell of acetone from the mouth;
- drastic weight loss;
- skin diseases.
After 40 years, diabetes can manifest itself as menstrual irregularities, deterioration of hair and nails, dizziness and constant weakness. Symptoms in women in their 50s are poor eyesight.
Signs of diabetes in men are thirst, frequent urination and problems with potency.
Types of skin diseases in diabetes
One of the characteristic symptoms that indicate high blood sugar is itchy skin. Therefore, the patient often develops fungal diseases and furunculosis. In women, the pathology is accompanied by severe irritation of the perineum.
A diabetic can develop more than thirty types of dermatoses, which are divided into 3 groups:
- Primary – appear against the background of metabolic disorders (dermopathy, xanthomatosis, diabetic blisters, necrobiosis).
- Secondary – occur in the event of a fungal or bacterial infection.
- Skin lesions that develop as side reactions after using certain drugs.
Dermatopathy is the most common signs of diabetes mellitus in women on the skin and photo, which shows that brown papules appear on the front of the lower leg, 5-12 cm in size. Gradually, these formations become pigmented atrophic spots. Pathology develops against the background of changes occurring in small blood vessels.
Other manifestations of diabetes mellitus on the skin are lipoid necrobiosis. Complication occurs due to a failure in carbohydrate metabolism. This disease can be the only symptom of hyperglycemia in insulin-dependent patients for many years.
Often women, aged 15-40 years, suffer from necrobiosis. In the process of the development of the disease, the skin on the legs is affected, where large blue-red spots or asymmetric nodular rashes appear.
Over time, the formations become large plaques with yellow-brown depressions in the center. Further, in their middle, atrophy occurs, covered with telangiectasias. And sometimes ulcers appear in the plaques, which are very painful.
A diabetic bladder on the skin appears rather infrequently. Pemphigus occurs sharply without redness of the feet, hands and fingers.
The bubbles can be of different sizes and are filled with liquid in the middle. Blisters usually disappear after 2-4 weeks without leaving scars.
Also, diabetes mellitus can be accompanied by peripheral atherosclerosis. This complication is characterized by a lesion of the vessels of the legs with the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that impede normal blood flow. As a result, the nutrition of the dermis is disrupted.
With atherosclerosis, the skin becomes thinner and dries up, and the wounds heal slowly, so even small scratches can turn into a mass of problems for the patient. In addition, while walking, soreness occurs in the calf muscles.
Eruptive xanthomatosis can also be troubling for a diabetic. It is a yellow skin rash surrounded by burgundy corollas.
The main places of localization of rashes are legs, buttocks, back, less often they accumulate on the face, neck and chest. Often, the appearance of pathology, in addition to an elevated glucose level, is facilitated by an excessive content of triglycerides in the blood.
The next side manifestation of diabetes is papillary-pigmentary dystrophy of the skin. It is characterized by the formation of brown spots in the groin, armpits and neck. This type of dermatosis is most often found in overweight patients.
Also, with chronic hyperglycemia, an annular granuloma develops, in which arcuate or annular rashes occur. In this case, the foot, fingers and hands are affected.
Neurodermatitis and itching of the skin often develop even before the onset of the underlying disease. It is noteworthy that such signs of diabetes on the skin, as the photo shows, most clearly manifest themselves precisely with the latent form of sugar disease. The places that itch the most are the intergluteal cavity, the folds of the abdomen, the elbows, and the groin area.
Sometimes in diabetics, the melanin pigment disappears in some skin areas, which causes the dermis to turn white. Vitiligo is mainly localized on the chest, abdomen and face.
It is worth noting that patients with similar problems should not be in the sun for a long time. Therefore, in order not to get burned, they must apply a special cream to the skin with an SPF of at least 30.
Acanthokeratoderma is a precursor to diabetes. It is characterized by thickening and darkening of the skin on the neck, groin and armpits.
With this condition, the skin turns brown. Often, acanthosis, manifested by dark formations, is detected in obese patients.
Quite often, diabetes mellitus is accompanied by fungal diseases. In women, one of the most common diseases is candidiasis, which occurs when Candida albicans gets on the skin.
Often, thrush worries overweight and elderly patients. The places of its localization are the mucous membranes of the genitals and mouth, large skin folds between the fingers of the extremities.
Initially, a white stripe is formed on the skin from the exfoliated stratum corneum, after which smooth erosion with a blue-colored center and cracks appear on it. Then bubbles and pustules form near the central focus.
The most vulnerable areas for fungal infections are the nails and toes. In addition to candidiasis, diabetics are often diagnosed with:
- epidermophytosis inguinal;
- athlete’s foot.
Bacterial infections with hyperglycemia are also not uncommon. Therefore, patients may develop carbuncles (subcutaneous accumulation of purulent acne and boils (similar to pustular acne).
One of the most serious complications of diabetes is foot deformity, the rapid development of which sometimes ends in gangrene. The disease develops due to damage to the skin, peripheral nerves, bone and soft tissues. Moreover, the patient experiences pain if he touches the affected area.
Diabetic foot syndrome is characterized by:
- flat feet;
- deformation of the foot and toes;
- the foot increases in size.
In addition, the nails can be affected by fungus. Sometimes ulcers form on the sole.
Skin care rules for diabetes
The first step is to cleanse the dermis. But diabetics should not use alkaline soap, because it dries the skin a lot, which leads to the destruction of the lipid layer and various damage.
Therefore, you need to use liquid cleansers with a neutral pH level. And for intimate hygiene, it is advisable to choose gels with lactic acid.
After cleansing, emollients and moisturizers are applied to dry areas of the body. It is equally important to care for your hands, paying close attention to your elbows and hands. For this purpose, a nourishing cream should be applied to the skin of the extremities several times a day.
Due to the failure in the regeneration processes and the high risk of infection, even the smallest damage to the skin should be carefully treated with antiseptics and special agents without alcohol, which accelerate the healing process.
If you have diaper rash in large skin folds, you should regularly take care of the hygiene of these areas. And after cleansing, a cream containing zinc oxide is applied to the affected areas.
Skin care for diabetes involves careful monitoring of the condition of the feet, since it is the feet that are a vulnerable spot for various infections. Therefore, diabetics must follow special rules:
- wear only comfortable shoes that do not squeeze the leg;
- inspect the feet every day;
- wash the limbs daily in warm water, rubbing them thoroughly with soft towels, especially in the area between the fingers;
- In the morning and in the evening, an emollient cream should be applied to the legs.
- In the presence of cracks and hyperkeratosis, it is necessary to use special protective equipment.
- If there are corns and calluses, you should use intensive care creams containing urea.
If you make timely foot care for diabetes, then the likelihood of complications is minimal.
It is noteworthy that diabetics are not allowed to soak their feet in hot water. Also, you can not cut corns, use plasters and corn fluid. It is recommended to treat the formations with a pumice stone, and then apply a special cream on them at least twice a day.
To make skin manifestations in diabetes mellitus minimal or even stop bothering you, you can use traditional medicine. For this, a special drink is prepared from celery root (100 g) and lemon with peel.
The ingredients are ground in a blender, placed in a glass container and refrigerated. The medicine is drunk sutra before breakfast, 1 tbsp. spoon. The duration of therapy is about two years.
To improve the condition of the skin, you can periodically take a warm bath with the addition of a decoction from a string or oak bark. And with various dermatoses, it is recommended to wipe the affected areas with an infusion of birch buds. With this tool, you can remove dry skin with diabetes.
Aloe is also effective against skin rashes in diabetes. The plant is used as follows: a piece of fresh aloe should be applied to the areas of the rash every day, after removing the thorns from it.
To soothe the skin with itching, you can make lotions from a decoction based on oak bark, St. John’s wort and mint (3 tablespoons of the herb in 1 glass of water). In a warm medicine, a napkin is moistened, and then applied to the itchy area. The video in this article will help you watch out for the symptoms of diabetes.