Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also called insulin-dependent or juvenile. This disease belongs to the group of endocrine pathologies and is characterized by a low level of production of a peptide hormone called insulin, which leads to an increase in blood glucose levels. The clinical picture with this pathological process is quite specific. It includes weight loss, intense thirst and many other signs. Currently, this condition is regarded as an autoimmune disorder, as a result of which pancreatic cells that are responsible for insulin production suffer. Despite the fact that this pathology is chronic, correctly selected therapy allows you to maintain the quality of life of a sick person at the proper level. However, sometimes such a violation can cause diabetic ketoacidosis , which, in turn, threatens the patient’s life.
As we have said, type 1 diabetes is also often called juvenile. This name is based on the fact that in the vast majority of cases children and adolescents are faced with this disease. However, in some cases, characteristic clinical manifestations occur in older people under the age of thirty years.The prevalence of the insulin-dependent form is about ten percent. Representatives of male and female are equally susceptible to the formation of such pathology. In addition to diabetic ketoacidosis , this disease may be complicated by hyperosmolar coma, diabetic retinopathy, and so on. If insulin is used improperly, there is a risk of developing hypoglycemic coma.
Currently, the causes of type 1 diabetes are still being studied. Most scientists are inclined to believe that the disorders characteristic of this disease are caused by autoimmune reactions, as a result of which the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are damaged. It is believed that hereditary predisposition is of great importance in the development of this pathology. It is noticed that in the event that parents have such a diagnosis, the probability of the formation of this disorder in children increases by about ten percent.
In addition, it is assumed that the development of this disease may be caused by viral infections that provoke the launch of autoimmune reactions. The greatest role in this case is given to enteroviruses and rubiviruses . Other possible causes are chemical agents that enter the body, which can also contribute to damage to the beta cells of the pancreas.
Sugar development mechanism diabetes Type 1 is primarily represented by a decrease in insulin production. As a result of the changes that occur, glucose utilization from the blood is disturbed, which contributes to a sharp increase in its level. Lack of insulin leads to excessive breakdown of fat and protein structures. At that moment, when the concentration of glucose in the blood becomes more than seven millimoles per liter, an activation pathway of glucose excretion, namely with the help of the kidneys, occurs. This leads to an increase in urine output, increased thirst and increasing dehydration of the body.
It is believed that in its development type 1 diabetes goes through several successive stages. At the first stage, genetic predisposition is traced, however, the insulin level remains normal. The second stage is the launch of autoimmune reactions, as a result of which the initial damage of beta cells is noted. At the third stage, the damage is more pronounced, and the insulin level decreases. The fourth stage is characterized by an increase in the level of glucose after a meal, and the fifth – by the appearance of specific clinical manifestations. The sixth stage implies the complete absence of cells responsible for the production of insulin, with the result that it can enter the body only in the form of a drug.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes
The earliest symptoms in this pathological process are intense thirst and increased urge to urinate. Daily urine volume often comes to three or four liters, there is a need to get up at night to urinate. A sick person drinks a very large amount of water and complains of constant dry mouth.
Additionally, symptoms such as weight loss, weakness and drowsiness during the daytime, bouts of dizziness and irritability are present. Despite the fact that the appetite of a sick person increases, as we have said, his weight begins to gradually decrease. The patient’s skin is dry, there are complaints of itching. The characteristic clinical manifestations are brittle nails, hair loss and slowing skin regeneration after it has been damaged.
As the disease progresses, symptoms that indicate kidney damage, the peripheral nervous system, visual disturbances, and much more can join.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
In the first place for the diagnosis of this disease it is recommended to measure the level of glucose in the blood and in the urine. Another informative study is the assessment of the level of glycated hemoglobin. Additionally shown tests for insulin, the study of the level of creatinine and urea, as well as ketone bodies.
The main treatment for type 1 diabetes is the administration of insulin. The regimen of such drugs is prepared individually, depending on the level of hyperglycemia. Also an important point is the strict observance of a specially designed for a particular patient diet, which completely eliminates the use of simple carbohydrates.
Prevention of the development of type 1 diabetes
Currently talking about methods prophylaxis It is rather difficult, since it is not known reliably what exactly promotes the launch of autoimmune reactions. The main recommendation is the systematic passage of routine surveys for people at risk.