The first type of diabetes: causes and signs of what it is in children and adults

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a common condition that is most often diagnosed during childhood or young adulthood. Pathology is characterized by the destruction of the cells of the pancreas, which produce the hormone insulin.

Juvenile diabetes mellitus belongs to the category of those diseases that give the patient a huge number of problems. The fact is that the disease is characterized by the development of complications, while chronic pathologies of a hereditary and acquired nature are also manifested.

Despite the development of modern medicine, medical specialists still cannot name the exact reasons and answer the question why diabetes occurs. However, there are certain factors that, over time, can lead to the onset of the disease.

It is necessary to consider everything about type 1 diabetes mellitus, fully find out what it is, and what should be expected from the pathology? Find out the causes of type 1 diabetes in children, as well as in adults. And also to consider the first signs of diabetes, indicating the development of the disease?

Causes of diabetes

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by the fact that insulin is completely absent in the human body. Medical practice shows that the disease progresses rapidly, and from the moment the first symptom appeared, and then complications began, a relatively short period of time may pass.

The main causes of diabetes lie in destruction. In other words, the functionality of the pancreas is disrupted, in particular its beta cells, which no longer produce the hormone the body needs.

When negative factors act on beta cells, they can no longer fully function, as a result of which hormone secretion is disrupted.

If we talk about type 1 diabetes, then we can say that it does not produce a natural hormone. However, the second type of diabetes, the second type, can be characterized by the production of insulin.

The following causes of type 1 diabetes mellitus can be distinguished:

  • A failure that has occurred in the immune system.
  • Genetic predisposition.
  • Diseases of a viral nature.

All of the above can be called the reasons due to which juvenile diabetes develops. However, there are also risk factors for pathology, which, under a certain set of circumstances, can lead to diabetes mellitus.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus can develop under the influence of such factors:

  1. Improper diet (high intake of carbohydrate foods, fatty and sweet foods, etc.).
  2. Sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activity.
  3. Severe stressful situations, nervous tension.

Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 10% of the total number of diabetic patients. And in the vast majority of cases, this pathology affects a child or children in adolescence.

Type 1 diabetes can be the result of obesity. However, there are other situations when the pathology itself develops initially, and only then the patient rapidly gains weight.

Clinical picture

The manifestation of the disease with type 1 diabetes depends not only on its type, but also on the duration of its course, the presence of the development of pathologies from the cardiovascular system, liver and kidneys, as well as other internal systems and organ.

Signs of diabetes have a fairly pronounced clinical picture, and are quite acute. If you do not pay attention to negative symptoms in time, then the disease progresses rapidly, which leads to the development of negative consequences.

According to the severity, diabetes can be divided into primary, secondary and pregnant. And the form of the disease can differ significantly – mild, severe and moderate type 1 diabetes.

As for the nature of the course of the pathology, it can be divided into insulin-dependent (this is youthful), or there is no dependence on insulin (most often in elderly patients, but maybe even at 30 years old).

As mentioned above, the onset of the disease always begins acutely. Typically, type 1 diabetes mellitus can be characterized by the following symptoms:

  • A sick person is constantly thirsty. Practice shows that a patient can drink about ten liters of ordinary liquid per day. In turn, trips to the toilet become more frequent, frequent urination is observed.
  • The appearance of severe hunger. And this feeling can arise immediately after the patient has eaten a dense meal.
  • Dryness in the mouth, attacks of nausea and vomiting, pain in the abdomen.
  • A sharp decrease in body weight. And this despite the fact that the person eats well, he did not change his diet.
  • Constant weakness and chronic fatigue.
  • Frequent infectious pathologies of the skin.

Quite often, sleep disturbance, pain in the heart, increased irritability, muscle and joint pain are considered the symptoms.

When examining such patients, sugar in urine, a lack of a hormone in the body, and a high glucose content are revealed. With a clinically pronounced form of the first type of disease, blood sugar on an empty stomach is more than 6.7 units. And after eating (after a few hours) more than 10 units.

If you ignore the symptoms, do not prescribe insulin therapy on time, then the patient may develop a diabetic coma. 

Diagnostic measures

It is impossible only to determine the symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Modern methods for diagnosing the disease include a wide range of clinical and laboratory studies.

First, the doctor interviews the patient, makes a clinical picture of the symptoms. After that, studies of the sugar content in the body, insulin are recommended.

Compulsory differential diagnostics is carried out to distinguish type 1 diabetes from other diseases, as well as to identify comorbidities in the patient. And after that, studies are carried out that establish the type of diabetes.

Laboratory research methods are presented in the following ways:

  1. Detection of the sugar content in the body on an empty stomach, two hours after the main meal, immediately before bedtime.
  2. A glucose tolerance study is in progress.
  3. The concentration of sugar in urine is revealed.
  4. The amount of glycated hemoglobin is detected.
  5. The urine is checked for ketone bodies. 

Additionally, carbohydrate metabolism and other diagnostic methods are evaluated. The doctor recommends checking the level of the hormone in the body, the sensitivity of human soft tissues to insulin is determined.

Carbohydrate metabolism can be assessed by the following measures:

  • The degree of functionality of the pancreas is determined.
  • The rate of consumption of the hormone by the body is determined.
  • Hereditary pathologies are revealed.
  • Elucidation of the reasons for the increase in weight, the hormonal activity of the patient’s adipose tissue is assessed.

Along with such diagnostic measures, kidney function is assessed, protein metabolism is studied, studies are underway to develop atherosclerotic changes in the body.

A particularly important point is a blood test for sugar, which can reveal violations in the process of carbohydrate metabolism. Such an analysis can be done without the recommendation of the attending physician, if the patient is at risk.

The risk group includes people over 40 who lead a sedentary lifestyle, smoke, abuse alcoholic beverages. As well as children and adolescents who have a history of hereditary pathologies.


Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic pathology. Unfortunately, it will not be possible to completely recover from this ailment. This means that you will have to support your body for full functioning throughout your life.

Since the disease is fraught with numerous negative consequences and complications, therapy is aimed at preventing them and preventing concomitant pathologies from developing.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus cannot be completely cured, but through medical correction, the risk of severe effects on the general health can be significantly reduced, and the development of new diseases through complex therapy can be excluded.

The first type of pathology is insulin-dependent, which means that the introduction of insulin is mandatory. Therefore, the patient must be able to correctly calculate the required dosage of the hormone, monitor its level in the body, constantly monitor blood sugar, and record the data in the diary of a diabetic.

Insulin administered to diabetics can be divided into the following groups:

  1. Drugs with a short effect.
  2. Means of medium action.
  3. Long-acting drugs.

Therapy of sugar pathology sets itself the following goal – this is to reduce the concentration of glucose in the body, reducing the likelihood of complications. If you adhere to all the doctor’s recommendations, then there is a huge chance to live a full life without negative manifestations of pathology.

In addition, you must follow a healthy diet. You could even say that this is the basis of a therapy program. It is on how carefully the patient treats his diet and diet that the entire success of the treatment can depend.

Another point of complex treatment is the optimal physical activity of diabetics. Patients are advised to lead an active lifestyle, play sports, which was recommended by the attending doctor.

In conclusion, it should be said that prevention consists in the following points: controlling the balance of fluid in the body, proper nutrition, taking vitamin complexes, drugs that increase the immune system, an active lifestyle, eliminating stressful situations and detrimental effects on the central nervous system. The video shows the type of disease.

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