Diabetes mellitus is a disease included in the section of endocrine disorders. This pathological process is characterized by an increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood against the background of an insufficient level of insulin. This pathology occurs in a chronic form and often leads to a significant reduction in the quality of life of a sick person.
Diabetes mellitus is an extremely common disease. According to statistics, it accounts for about sixty percent of all endocrine pathologies. According to the World Health Organization, over one hundred and fifty million people worldwide are currently suffering from this disease. At the same time, about one-tenth of them are children.
One of the main tasks of insulin is that it promotes the processing of glucose in the cells of the body. Glucose, which has not been processed, is stored in the liver and muscle tissues. If necessary, she can again go to blood and interact with the cells of the body. Insulin is also needed for this process. If the amount of insulin produced is insufficient or the mechanism of its interaction with tissues is disturbed, the concentration of glucose in the blood rises. Due to this, cellular structures lose their main source of energy.
Depending on the reason for the development of this disease, it is customary to distinguish two of its main types: the first and second. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic cells against the background of autoimmune processes. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is a decrease in the susceptibility of human cells to insulin. At the same time, the level of its production remains within the normal range.
Type 1 diabetes
Most often, type 1 diabetes is formed in people under the age of thirty years. As we have said, the main cause of its development is insufficient insulin production against the background of cell death, which is synthesized. As a rule, such a pathological process is caused by infectious diseases or toxic substances entering the body. In some cases, its role in the formation of such a sugar diabetes can play congenital features of the development of the pancreas, cancer and severe stress. Very often, this pathological process takes place in conjunction with other autoimmune disorders, for example, with diffuse toxic goiter.
The clinical picture in type 1 diabetes is characterized by rapid development. A sick person complains of increased dry mouth and intense thirst. This leads to a significant increase in the amount of fluid consumed per day. Against this background, there is an increase in the urge to urinate. A characteristic sign is the constant feeling of hunger. However, even with increased nutrition, there is a progressive decrease in body weight. In addition, in some cases, symptoms such as occasional nausea, accompanied by vomiting, increased weakness and fatigue, and unreasonable irritability may be present.
The secondary manifestations that appear much later may be deterioration of visual function and frequent inflammatory diseases of the skin.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed much more often than type 1. It accounts for about eighty-five percent of all cases of this pathology. The important point is that older people are predominantly affected by this disease. Earlier we said that insulin immunity is the basis of the onset of this pathological process.
The development of this disorder can be overweight, increased consumption of carbohydrate foods, as well as some types of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, hereditary predisposition, chronic adrenal insufficiency, as well as frequent stressful situations are predisposing factors. If a person uses glucocorticosteroids uncontrollably, cytostatics and some other types of medications, the risk of diabetes in him increases several times.
In general, type 2 diabetes in its clinical picture is quite similar to type 1 of this disease. However, there are a number of distinctive points. The first of these is the slower and gradual development of the pathological process. A sick person also has an excessive need for fluid and increased urge to urinate. His appetite increases, against the background of which the body weight is rapidly increasing. Often, the patient complains of the presence of pruritus, fatigue, blurred vision and slow healing of wounds on the skin.
Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is primarily diagnosed based on an assessment of blood glucose levels. In case of doubt, it is recommended to conduct a glucose tolerance test. In addition, an increase in the concentration of glycated hemoglobin is observed in this disease, as well as the presence of glucose and ketone bodies in the urine.
An important point in the treatment of diabetes is the observance of a special diet, which aims to maintain normal blood glucose levels. It implies an individual calculation of daily calories, as well as the amount of necessary fats, proteins and carbohydrates. In the event that the patient has insufficient insulin production, he is shown insulin replacement therapy. In case of insensitivity of tissues to insulin, drugs that have a sugar-reducing effect are prescribed.
For prophylaxis such a disorder should promptly deal with the treatment of emerging infectious pathologies, monitor its weight, avoid severe stress, and also abandon excessive consumption of carbohydrates.