What is ketoacidosis for sugar disease? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of the “sweet” illness, which, if ignored and the lack of adequate treatment, can lead to coma or death.
The complication progresses sharply when the human body does not perceive glucose as a source of energy, and there is not enough insulin in it. In this version, a special mechanism is activated, and the human body uses fats from food in the form of energy.
Due to the fact that fats begin to break down, special substances are formed called ketones. What it is? In fact, these substances are waste materials that tend to accumulate in the human body and provoke intoxication of the body.
Knowing what diabetic ketosis is, you need to consider how people with diabetic ketoacidosis are treated? What mistakes in the introduction of patients with this pathology can be, and how to prevent them.
Reasons and stages
The main cause of ketoacidosis in diabetes mellitus is a hormone deficiency in the human body. In medical practice, a number of factors are identified that can provoke the progression of complications.
Ketoacidosis in type 1 diabetes mellitus can develop as a result of inadequate therapy, the dosage of insulin is incorrectly calculated, it is introduced late.
The etiological factors for the development of complications are the following: unhealthy diet, concomitant diseases that aggravate diabetes mellitus, operations and injuries of varying severity, stress, the use of medications.
Diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adults is divided into three degrees:
- The first degree is easy. It is characterized by the manifestation of the primary symptoms of this pathology. The patient visits the toilet more and more often, nausea is observed, there are slight signs of poisoning of the body.
- The second degree is called medium. The patient is not feeling very well. Disruption of the functioning of the cardiovascular system, rapid heartbeat, pulse rate, and arterial pressure indicators decrease.
- The latest and most dangerous degree by clinicians is called severe. Impairment of consciousness, constriction of the pupils, strong smell of acetone, severe dehydration are the main symptoms that characterize diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adults at the last stage.
Diabetes mellitus belongs to the category of diseases that can provoke the development of many concomitant diseases and serious complications.
Exceptionally daily monitoring of blood glucose minimizes the likelihood of negative consequences.
The symptomatology of the pathology does not depend on the age of the patient, and it manifests itself in adults and small patients gradually, starting from one day and ending with one week.
It is this slow progression of the disease that allows us to suspect something, and consult a doctor in a timely manner.
In medical practice, symptoms that are characteristic of each stage of a pathological complication are distinguished. Along with this, symptoms of ketoacidosis with sugar disease are distinguished, which make it possible to suspect a complication:
- Abrupt weight loss, while the patient eats as before.
- Constant weakness, apathy and chronic fatigue.
- Constant desire to drink liquids.
- Headaches, dizziness (rare).
- Nervous irritability and irritability.
- Dry skin, impaired functioning of the cardiovascular system.
- The smell of acetone from the mouth.
If you do not fight with ketoacidosis, and ignore the situation, then a patient with diabetes will develop a coma. Coma, in turn, is divided into several types.
Cardiovascular coma is characterized by pronounced symptoms from the side of the heart and blood vessels, heart failure, pain in the region of the heart, and a decrease in blood pressure are observed.
Abdominal coma is accompanied by painful sensations in the abdomen, nausea, and bouts of vomiting. Encephalopathic proceeds against the background of circulatory disorders in the brain, visual perception is impaired.
The renal form of coma is characterized by frequent urination followed by anuria.
So, having considered diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adults, and knowing what it is, you need to consider how to diagnose this condition in a diabetic.
Diagnostic measures are carried out before hospitalization of the patient through blood and urine tests. In a situation where it is not possible to obtain a urine test, since it cannot be collected, a biological fluid (blood) is examined, a small amount of which is applied to the test strip to determine the presence of ketone bodies in the urine.
Then the stage of development of the complication is established. It is very important to distinguish diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adults from hyperosmolar syndrome and other diseases.
Diagnosis of the disease is differential in nature, therefore it is necessary to distinguish the disease from other acute conditions:
- Alcoholic ketoacidosis.
- Acidosis due to hunger.
- Medication overdose.
- Overdose of medications that contain methyl alcohol.
- Poisoning the body with ethyl alcohol.
It should be said that the patient may have a normal or low body temperature regime, but this does not mean that there are no infectious and inflammatory processes.
Ketoacidosis in type 2 and type 1 diabetes mellitus is treated exclusively in a hospital, treatment at home will not help correct the situation, worsening of the disease is not excluded, respectively, the risk of losing the patient increases.
Treatment of ketoacidosis must be successful, therefore, doctors rely on five components that are necessarily included in therapy: insulin administration, restore water balance in the body, replenish the lack of minerals in the patient’s body, restore acid and alkaline balance, and treat concomitant pathologies.
Treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis includes the following items:
- A blood test for glucose every hour until it becomes within normal limits.
- Analysis of urine several times a day for the first time, then once a day.
- Biochemical general analysis of urine once a day.
- Analysis of the concentration of potassium and sodium in the body (if not enough, vitamins for diabetics may be prescribed ).
- When a patient has two diagnoses, such as alcoholism and diabetes mellitus, the phosphorus content is additionally examined.
- Control urination until it returns to normal.
- Blood pressure indicators are monitored.
If there is a suspicion that a patient has infectious and inflammatory processes in the body, then additional diagnostic methods are recommended.
It should be said once again that the main task of the doctor is to include all five points in therapy that will help normalize the patient’s condition, improve his condition, and prevent further progression of the pathology.
Ketosis in diabetes can lead to various complications. A timely visit to a doctor will relieve the patient of swelling of the brain, lungs, hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis coma and death.