Diabetes mellitus is a group of various pathological conditions of the human body in which the blood sugar level rises. The main reasons for this are: insulin deficiency, decreased tissue sensitivity to insulin action, or both at the same time. As a result of chronic hyperglycemia, that is, increased blood sugar levels, damage occurs to various target organs, such as the kidneys, eyes, heart and blood vessels, and nervous tissue. With the passage of time, these organs are increasingly worse performing their basic functions, and their functional insufficiency develops.
Varieties of diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is represented by four main subgroups, each of which has its own clinical course, and medical tactics in all cases will be different.
- Sugar diabetes 1 like
In this disease, special pancreatic cells that synthesize insulin die. Some of the cells may die, and maybe all. At the same time, due to the absence or insignificant amount of insulin in the blood, the sugar index becomes very high and hyperglycemia occurs. Subject to this disease children or young people under 30 years old.
- Type 2 diabetes
In this disease, the pancreatic cells synthesize insulin in sufficient quantity, but the tissues of the body become insensitive to it. For this reason, glucose it is also not metabolized, but continues to circulate in the plasma, causing hyperglycemia.
- Gestational diabetes
This is a type of diabetes that develops in women during pregnancy. Most often, its symptoms disappear along with the pregnancy, but in this case there is a risk of recurrence of gestational diabetes during the following pregnancies. It can also have an adverse effect on the health of the future baby.
- Other specific types of diabetes
These are types of diabetes that are provoked by diseases of the pancreas, certain medications, various hormonal diseases, infections and other factors.
Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes
Diabetes mellitus: a disease that is one of the most common and there is a trend towards an increase in the number of patients with this pathology throughout the world. In order to ensure the absence of this disease, one simple analysis is needed – blood On sugar, which surrenders strictly on an empty stomach. Its normal rate is 3.3-5.5 mmol / l. If the sugar level is higher, consultation and examination by an endocrinologist is necessary. The sooner treatment is started, the greater the chances of staying healthy for many years.