Diabetes mellitus is an insidious disease that occurs throughout the world. The disease in the early stages is asymptomatic, and patients may not be aware of the disease, which is progressing more and more every day. The consequences of diabetes threaten human life, and coma is one of the most dangerous in medical practice. The symptoms of a coma in diabetes mellitus and first aid are not difficult to remember, but information can save the life of a loved one.
The content of the article
Types of diabetic coma
In most cases, the disease is reversible, the patient can be brought out of unconsciousness. There are several types of coma in diabetes:
- Hypoglycemic, caused by a sharp drop in sugar levels;
- Hyperosmolar (or hyperglycemic, provoked by a serious metabolic disorder with high sugar);
- Ketoacidotic, manifested due to a lack of insulin in the human body.
Not only the above factors are the cause of diabetic coma. Improper treatment, overdose of insulin injections and a sharp increase in glucose levels lead to critical clinical conditions of the patient.
Symptoms of hypoglycemic coma
Symptoms of coma in diabetes mellitus are more often manifested in hypoglycemic conditions, and they are experienced by patients suffering from type 1 diabetes. The problem is also relevant for patients taking medications in the form of pills. The precursor to coma is an instant increase in the amount of insulin in the blood, after which a person can fall into a coma. The danger of coma is the risk of damage to the central nervous system, in particular the brain. The developed pathology is an irreversible condition that threatens the inability to lead a full life in the future, as well as the death of the patient. Development factors for hypoglycemia are:
- Excessive physical activity;
- Insulin injection overdose;
- Mental or physiological trauma;
- Lack of carbohydrates in the body when eating.
Symptoms of a mild attack:
- Trembling in the limbs;
- Slight sweating;
- A sharp jump in nervous excitement;
- Feeling of general weakness.
Symptoms must be stopped immediately. This is the only way to avoid the pre-coma state, the bright signals of which are:
- Tremors develop into severe convulsions;
- Intense hunger;
- Sweating becomes violent;
- Nervous excitement develops into aggression, human behavior becomes uncontrollable.
The convulsions become so severe that because of them the patient cannot straighten the limb. The impact on the nervous system is so strong that a diabetic may become disoriented, then faint and fall into a coma. How to act to help a person as soon as possible?
First aid for diabetic coma of the hypoglycemic type depends on the severity of the signs and symptoms. With mild symptoms, the patient should be given several lumps of refined sugar, 2-3 teaspoons of honey, and 100 g of cookies. Diabetics should always carry a small amount of sweets with them in order to be able to provide emergency assistance. In severe cases, you need to act differently:
- Insert the retainer between the lower and upper jaw. This will save the patient from a sharp compression of the jaws;
- We prepare tea at the rate of 3-4 tablespoons of sugar in a regular glass. If a person can swallow, the liquid should be poured directly into his mouth;
- If the patient feels better, you need to prepare him food rich in carbohydrates (cereals, fruits and pastries);
- To prevent the attack from recurring again, the next dose of insulin should be reduced to 4-8 units;
- When the hypoglycemic reaction is eliminated, it is necessary to register the diabetic with the attending physician.
The most dangerous reaction of the body to a decrease in sugar is the subsequent loss of consciousness. The only method of help is intravenous administration of 40-80 ml of glucose, as well as calling an ambulance.
Hyperglycemic coma: help and symptoms
Comatose states with high blood sugar are characteristic of persons over 50 years of age, whose course of the disease is moderate in severity. The main reasons for critical reactions of the body:
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- Internal injuries;
- Improper intake of diuretics, as well as immunosuppressants;
- Intercurrent infections;
- Improper diet, accompanied by an excess of carbohydrates.
Symptoms of a pre-coma condition:
- Mental lethargy, drowsiness;
- Weakness of the body, thirst and polyuria form a few days before the attack;
- Later hallucinations begin, intelligibility of speech is disturbed;
- Increased muscle tone provokes severe cramps;
First aid for hyperglycemic coma:
- We put the patient in the correct and comfortable position;
- We exclude the sinking of the tongue, if necessary, we remove the air duct;
- We measure blood pressure, make adjustments;
- Intravenously inject a 40% glucose solution in an amount of 10-20 ml;
- We call an ambulance if acute intoxication of the body is noticed.
Ketoacidotic coma: symptoms and first aid
Lack of insulin and coma is more often caused by an incorrect diagnosis, late detection of diabetes mellitus, and an incorrect method of patient treatment. The situation is aggravated by mental and physical trauma, infection with purulent infections, and poorly performed operations. The risk group includes pregnant women with diabetes mellitus, people with heart muscle diseases, as well as people exposed to daily stress. Symptoms of a ketoacidotic coma:
- Feeling of nausea, increased thirst;
- General weakness in the body;
The list of signals increases with the worsening of the previous coma:
- Acute abdominal pain and severe vomiting;
- The smell of acetone from the mouth;
- Deep, heavy, noisy breathing;
- Impaired consciousness, inhibition of speech and thought processes, coma.
Symptoms of a ketoacidotic coma in diabetes mellitus must be eliminated immediately after detection. First aid consists in calling the ambulance team in a timely manner and checking the patient’s vital functions (respiration, pulse, body temperature). Check immediately if the diabetic is conscious. Ask him a question, gently rub the earlobes. In an unconscious state, a person’s life is in serious danger!
General rules of care for an undefined type of diabetic coma
You cannot hesitate to call an ambulance. Only a qualified physician will be able to provide quality assistance in the coma of a diabetic. If there is no way to call an ambulance, or it takes a long time, follow these rules:
- 6-12 additional units of insulin are injected intramuscularly;
- In the morning of the next day, an injection of 4-12 units is given. During the day, injections are given 2-3 times;
- Nutrition is controlled: fats are excluded, carbohydrates are ordered;
- Fruits and vegetables in the diet increase;
- Give a diabetic drink mineral water, or water with a spoonful of baking soda dissolved in it;
- With confusion, an enema with a solution of soda is given.
Information will help you save the life of a loved one. Modern methods of treating diabetes mellitus effectively affect the patient’s body. Properly administered emergency first aid will improve the condition of the diabetic before the doctors arrive.